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adrenal gland

adrenal gland  

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An endocrine gland situated just above each kidney, secreting adrenalin (epinephrine), noradrenalin (norepinephrine), and other hormones into the bloodstream. See also adrenal cortex, adrenal medulla.
adrenal medulla

adrenal medulla  

The inner part of the adrenal gland, containing chromaffin cells that release adrenalin (epinephrine) and noradrenalin (norepinephrine) into the bloodstream in response to fear or stress.
adrenalin rush

adrenalin rush  

A sudden increase in competitive drive displayed by an athlete or sports competitor, supposedly associated with the release of adrenalin into the bloodstream. This expression is based on a ...
adrenergic

adrenergic  

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1 Describing a cell, especially a neuron, or a cell receptor that is stimulated by adrenaline, noradrenaline, or related substances. See also adrenoceptor.2 Describing a nerve fibre or neuron that ...
adrenergic

adrenergic  

A drug that exerts the same effect as adrenaline.
adrenoceptor

adrenoceptor  

(adrenoreceptor, adrenergic receptor) any cell receptor that binds with the catecholamines adrenaline or noradrenaline, the neurotransmitters of the sympathetic nervous system. There are two ...
alarm response

alarm response  

Signals emitted by an animal that serve to warn others of a danger the individual has perceived. The signals may be visual (e.g. the white tail of a rabbit, displayed when running), aural (e.g. the ...
amine

amine  

Any one of a group of organic compounds derived by replacing one or more of the hydrogen atoms in ammonia by organic groups. Primary amines have one hydrogen replaced, e.g. methylamine, CH3NH2. They ...
anaphylaxis

anaphylaxis  

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Extreme sensitivity to an allergen, clinically manifest as acute-onset swelling of mucosal tissues including the trachea, where it causes life-threatening obstruction of the airway.
angiotensin II

angiotensin II  

A polypeptide hormone that causes constriction of the blood vessels, raising blood pressure, precipitates adrenalin release and blocks its reuptake, and stimulates the release of aldosterone, thereby ...
antihistamine

antihistamine  

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A drug that blocks the action of histamine, used in the treatment of allergic rhinitis, especially hay fever. A common side effect is drowsiness. See histamine receptors.
anxiety

anxiety  

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n. generalized pervasive fear. Anxiety disorders are conditions in which anxiety dominates the patient’s life or is experienced in particular situations; they include panic disorder, post-traumatic ...
arousal reaction

arousal reaction  

A reaction that occurs when an individual is confronted with sudden, usually threatening environmental situations which stimulate the reticular activating system. Other brain structures are then ...
articaine

articaine  

n. a local anaesthetic used in dentistry. It is available in combination with adrenaline (as Septanest) to achieve better and longer lasting anaesthesia.
atropine

atropine  

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An alkaloid, isolated from deadly nightshade Atropa belladonna, that inhibits muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. If topically applied to the eye, causes dilation of the pupil, enhancing beauty; ...
attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder  

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(ADD/ADHD)A common childhood-onset behavioural disorder in which there is persistent inattention and/or hyperactive-impulsive behaviour. Boys are more likely to be affected than girls. At least six ...
beta blocker

beta blocker  

A drug that prevents stimulation of the beta-adrenergic receptors at the nerve endings of the sympathetic nervous system. Beta blockers decrease the activity of the heart and some reduce the ...
biogenic amine

biogenic amine  

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Any amine that is produced by living organisms, especially the physiologically active amines that serve as neurotransmitters in animals. These include adrenaline (epinephrine), noradrenaline ...
blood vessel

blood vessel  

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A tube carrying blood away from or towards the heart. Blood vessels are the means by which blood circulates throughout the body. See artery, arteriole, vein, venule, capillary.
cardiac muscle

cardiac muscle  

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The specialized muscle of which the walls of the heart are composed. It is composed of a network of branching elongated cells (fibres) whose junctions with neighbouring cells are marked by irregular ...

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