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John Adams

(1735—1826) president of the United States of America

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Abigail Adams

Abigail Adams  

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Overview Page
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Literature
(1744–1818),wife of John Adams, from whom she had to be separated for long periods during the Revolution, occasioning her frequent, loving, lively, and outspoken letters. She also engaged in ...
Alien and Sedition Acts

Alien and Sedition Acts  

(1798).The term “Alien and Sedition Acts” refers to four controversial laws enacted by the Federalist-controlled Congress in 1798 in response to fears about imminent war with France and about ...
American Articles of War

American Articles of War  

A code of military law adopted by the Continental Congress in 1775, at the outbreak of the Revolutionary War, to govern discipline and justice in the army. It was written ...
American Revolution

American Revolution  

When Great Britain virtually eliminated the French from North America with the Treaty of Paris, which ended the Seven Years' War, it was expected that one of the major benefits ...
Boston Massacre

Boston Massacre  

1770.The ‘massacre’ resulted from the clash between British troops, who fired without orders, and an urban crowd, on 5 March 1770 in Boston (Mass.). Three persons were killed. Its propaganda value ...
caucuses, congressional

caucuses, congressional  

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Overview Page
The congressional caucus was a method of nominating Presidential candidates used by the Federalist party in 1800 and the Democratic-Republican party between 1800 and 1824.Borrowing the word from the ...
Constitutional Convention

Constitutional Convention  

By late 1786, only three years after the end of the Revolutionary War, most Americans had concluded that the Confederation Congress was too weak to deal with the social, economic ...
Continental Congress

Continental Congress  

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History
(1774; 1775–89)The assembly that first met in Philadelphia to concert a colonial response to the ‘Intolerable’ Coercive Acts. At its first session, the radicals, led by delegates from Massachusetts, ...
Declaration of Independence

Declaration of Independence  

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History
The foundation document of the United States of America, which proclaimed American separation from Britain and was adopted by the Continental Congress on 4 July 1776. Its principal author was Thomas ...
Federal Government, Judicial Branch.

Federal Government, Judicial Branch.  

The framework of the federal judicial system was established by the Judiciary Act of 1789. Its principal author, Senator Oliver Ellsworth of Connecticut, a delegate to the Constitutional Convention ...
Federalist Party

Federalist Party  

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History
US political party. The first political party to emerge after the Constitution of the USA became operative (1789), it took its name from the Federalist Papers, a collection of essays written by James ...
France, Undeclared Naval War with

France, Undeclared Naval War with  

(1798–1800) a series of incidents between France and the United States where French ships or French privateers seized neutral American ships carrying British goods. (France and Britain were at war ...
Franco-American Alliance

Franco-American Alliance  

An agreement signed by Benjamin Franklin and the comte de Vergennes, the French foreign minister, on February 6, 1778, during the Revolutionary War. Consisting of the Treaty of Amity and ...
gag rule

gag rule  

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Overview Page
In 1836 the House of Representatives established a “gag rule” to try to stop citizens from submitting antislavery petitions. Previously, the House and Senate had simply referred such petitions to ...
George Washington

George Washington  

(1732–99)US soldier and statesman, 1st President of the USA (1789–97). After serving as a soldier (1754–59) in the war against the French, Washington took part in two of the three Continental ...
Henry Adams

Henry Adams  

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Literature
(1838–1918) American historian and man of lettersDemocracy (1880) FictionEsther (1884) FictionHistory of the United States (1889–1891) Non-FictionMemoirs of Marau Taaroa, Last Queen of Tahiti (1893) ...
isolationism

isolationism  

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Overview Page
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History
An approach to US foreign policy that advocates non-participation in alliances or in the affairs of other nations. It derives its spirit from George Washington's proclamation of neutrality in 1793, ...
John Jay

John Jay  

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Overview Page
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History
(1745–1829)American statesman and jurist. He was a member of the first and second Continental Congresses, became Chief Justice of New York, a member of Congress, Minister to Spain (1780–82), and a ...
John Marshall

John Marshall  

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Overview Page
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Law
(1755–1835), chief justice of the United States, 1801–35, was born on September 24, 1755, in Fauquier [then Prince William] County, Virginia.He was the eldest of fifteen children of Thomas ...
John Quincy Adams

John Quincy Adams  

(1767–1848)US Republican statesman, 6th President of the USA (1825–29). The eldest son of President John Adams, he was minister to Britain (1809–14). As Secretary of State (1817–24) he helped to ...

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