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action theory

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actionalism

actionalism  

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A term generally associated with the name of French sociologist Alain Touraine, and not to be confused with the ‘action frame of reference’ (see action theory) proposed by Talcott Parsons. Beginning ...
agency

agency  

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1. (sociology) A central thematic opposition with structure representing the scope for human freedom of action—versus the ways in which actions may be determined by social structures. See also ...
collective Action

collective Action  

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Action taken by a group (either directly or on its behalf through an organization) in pursuit of members’ perceived shared interests. It seems logical to expect that people who have an interest in ...
concentric zone theory

concentric zone theory  

R. Park and E. Burgess (1925) suggested that the struggle for scarce urban resources, especially land, led to competition for land and resources, which ultimately led to the spatial differentiation ...
conflict theory

conflict theory  

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Conflict has always been central to sociological theory and analysis. Some of the earliest approaches included Ludwig Gumplowicz's theory of ethnic conflict and Gaetano Mosca's theory of conflict ...
contractarianism

contractarianism  

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Philosophy
A contractarian approach to problems of ethics asks what solution could be agreed upon by contracting parties, starting from certain idealized positions (for example, no ignorance, no inequalities of ...
E. E. Evans-Pritchard

E. E. Evans-Pritchard  

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(1902–73)A leading British social anthropologist who undertook ethnographic studies of a number of African societies. He viewed social anthropology as a humanistic rather than a scientific study of ...
effort bargain

effort bargain  

The exchange of effort for reward which lies at the core of the employment relationship. This sociological concept captures the tacit or customary nature of the economic exchange within work and ...
false consciousness

false consciousness  

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A Marxist concept, referring to thinking that confirms human servitude, rather than emancipating the species essence. It refers to the purpose served by thought in the collective life of humanity. ...
George Homans

George Homans  

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(1910 –1989)An American sociologist who specialized in the study of individual behavior and interaction within small groups. His early work, The Human Group (1950), sought to specify and develop ...
goal

goal  

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The state that is presumed to exist within the brain of an animal and which corresponds to a state of affairs the animal seeks to achieve. It is inferred from observation of the stimuli that ...
humanism

humanism  

[De]A philosophy or ethical system that centres on the concept of the dignity, freedom, and value of human beings. The belief that there is an essential human condition that emerges regardless of ...
interpretation

interpretation  

[Th]The stage in research at which the results of archaeological analyses are synthesized and there is an attempt to explain their meaning or consolidate a knowledgeable understanding of the results. ...
Karl Polanyi

Karl Polanyi  

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(1886–1964)An influential and internationally renowned Austrian-born economic historian, and brother of the philosopher Michael Polanyi. He taught widely throughout Europe and the United States, and ...
macrosociology

macrosociology  

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(sociology)A level of analysis concerned with social structures (institutions or whole societies), or with historical or global processes. Approaches from the perspective of functionalism and Marxist ...
Margaret Mead

Margaret Mead  

(1901–1978)US anthropologist noted for her studies of preliterate societies and her work on the role of culture in character development.Mead studied psychology at Barnard College, where she ...
Max Weber

Max Weber  

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(1864–1920)German social scientist and political economist who became a founding father of modern sociology.Weber studied legal and economic history at several German universities. After a brief ...
meaning

meaning  

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Philosophy
Whatever it is that makes what would otherwise be mere sounds and inscriptions into instruments of communication and understanding. The philosophical problem is to demystify this power, and to relate ...
National Statistics Socio-economic Classification

National Statistics Socio-economic Classification  

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(NS-SEC) an occupational classification of the national population that was developed to replace older systems based on social classes and socio-economic groups. The groupings are intended to ...
need

need  

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n. requirement or necessity. In the context of health care and medical ethics, a distinction is often made between needs and wants. As such, for the purpose of allocating limited health-care ...

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