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Dean Acheson

(1893—1971) American statesman, Secretary of State 1949–53

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Alger Hiss

Alger Hiss  

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(1904–96) State Department official and accused spy. In 1950, Hiss was convicted of perjury, stemming from his testimony before a grand jury that he had never given a Communist courier ...
George F. Kennan

George F. Kennan  

(1904–2005) diplomat, historian, and foreign policy critic, born in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Kennan was the chief architect of America's Cold War strategy of containment. As director of the policy ...
Harry S. Truman

Harry S. Truman  

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(1884–1972)US Democratic statesman, 33rd President of the USA (1945–53). As Vice‐President, he automatically took office on Franklin Roosevelt's death in 1945. One of his first actions was to ...
J. Robert Oppenheimer

J. Robert Oppenheimer  

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(1904–67) theoretical physicist and director of the Los Alamos National Laboratory (1942–45), born Julius Robert Oppenheimer in New York City. As director of the bomb design unit of the Manhattan ...
Joseph McCarthy

Joseph McCarthy  

(b. 14 Nov. 1908, d. 2 May 1957).US Senator 1947–57 Born in Grand Chute in rural Wisconsin, he was a farm worker and store-keeper until he went on to obtain a high school degree within one year ...
Korean War

Korean War  

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The war of 1950–3 between North and South Korea. UN troops, dominated by US forces, countered the invasion of South Korea by North Korean forces by invading North Korea, while China intervened on the ...
Limited War, Joint Chiefs of Staff and

Limited War, Joint Chiefs of Staff and  

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During the Cold War, the American military became involved in two major if limited wars or police actions: Korea (1950–53) and Vietnam (1964–72). Before the large‐scale commitment of American ...
Louis Johnson

Louis Johnson  

(1891–1966), secretary of defense.As defense secretary from 28 March 1949 to 19 September 1950, Louis Johnson was best known for his controversial money‐saving measures. The most contentious was his ...
Marshall Plan

Marshall Plan  

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A programme of financial aid and other initiatives, sponsored by the US, designed to boost the economies of western European countries after the Second World War. It was originally advocated by ...
National Security Council Document #68

National Security Council Document #68  

(1950), officially titled “U.S. Objectives and Programs for National Security,” the quintessential policy document of the Cold War.The final victory of the Chinese communists, the detonation of an ...
Nuclear Arms Control Treaties.

Nuclear Arms Control Treaties.  

Efforts to control nuclear weapons began in the first session of the United Nations General Assembly in 1946, when U.S. delegate Bernard Baruch and Soviet delegate Andrei Gromyko put forward ...
Robert Taft

Robert Taft  

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(b. Cincinnati, Ohio, 8 Sept. 1889; d. New York City, 31 July 1953)US; US Senator 1939–53 The son of President William Howard Taft, he bore the most famous name in Ohio politics. He took a BA at Yale ...
Truman Doctrine

Truman Doctrine  

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The principle that the US should give support to countries or peoples threatened by Soviet forces or Communist insurrection. First expressed in 1947 by US President Harry S. Truman (1884–1972), the ...
U.S. Military Involvement in Korea

U.S. Military Involvement in Korea  

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U.S. military involvement began almost from the outset as the United States sought in the mid‐nineteenth century to establish commercial and diplomatic relations with the so‐called “Hermit Kingdom.” ...

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