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Academies

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Aaron of Baghdad

Aaron of Baghdad  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
(mid-9th cent. ce).A Babylonian Jewish scholar who lived in Italy and is regarded as a link between the Babylonian academies and W. Jewish culture. He is described by Eleazar ...
Abba

Abba  

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Overview Page
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Religion
(late 3rd/early 4th cent. ce). Jewish Babylonian amora, who later settled in Israel. He was seen as a link between the two centres.
Babylonia

Babylonia  

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Overview Page
Subject:
History
[CP]A region taking in the whole of the southern alluvial plain of Mesopotamia, which although traditionally linked with the city of Babylon was not always connected to it or ruled from it.
exilarch

exilarch  

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Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
Head of the Jewish community in Babylon. The origins of the office are obscure but there is clear evidence that the exilarchs, traditionally descended from King David, functioned virtually as Jewish ...
Gaon

Gaon  

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Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
(Heb., ‘pride’, Nahum 2. 3; pl. geʾonim).Honorific title of the heads of the Jewish academies of Sura and Pumbedita. Between the 6th and 11th cents. ce, the geonim were ...
Kallah Months

Kallah Months  

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Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
The months in the Jewish year when scholars gathered to study Torah in the Babylonian academies. The custom has been revived in modern Israel.
Nehardea

Nehardea  

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Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
Babylonian academy located in a city of that name near the junction of the Euphrates River and the Malka Canal. The city’s Jewish origins were traditionally traced back to King ...
Oral law

Oral law  

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Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
The part of Jewish religious law believed to have been passed down by oral tradition before being collected in the Mishnah.
Pumbedita

Pumbedita  

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Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
Centre of Jewish learning, 2nd–4th cents. CE. The academy at Pumbedita and the academy at Sura were together the centres of Jewish scholarship in Babylon.
Rav

Rav  

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Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
(3rd cent. ce). Abba b. Arikha (i.e. ‘the tall’). Jewish Babylonian amora. Rav was the founder of the academy at Sura. He was called Rav (see RABBI) because he was ...
Rava

Rava  

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Overview Page
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Religion
(4th cent. ce). R. Abba b. Joseph b. Ḥama. Jewish Babylonian amora. The discussions of Rava and his companion Abbaye are found throughout the Babylonian Talmud. In general, the halakhah ...
Reish Kallah

Reish Kallah  

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Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
(; head of a row), a term that refers to a sage who delivered discourses during kallot (see Kallah Months); the title appears a few times in the Talmud Bavli ...
Resh Kallah

Resh Kallah  

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Overview Page
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Religion
Title of leading Jewish sages of the Babylonian academies. Only two are mentioned by name in the Talmud,R. Naḥman b. Isaac (BBB 22a) and R. Abbahu (B.Hul. 49a).
Saadiah Gaon

Saadiah Gaon  

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Overview Page
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Religion
Foremost medieval spiritual leader, Talmudist, biblical exegete, and philosopher (882–942). Saadiah was born in Egypt, and lived for a time in Tiberias, after which he was appointed by the exilarch, ...
Savora’

Savora’  

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Overview Page
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Religion
(; expositor), title given to scholars and heads of the Babylonian academies in the period (6th cent.) following that of the amora’im and preceding that of the ge’onim. The title ...
Sherira Gaon

Sherira Gaon  

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Overview Page
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Religion
Head of the college in Pumbedita (see GEONIM). Reliable reports have it that Sherira lived for 100 years, the date of his death being given as around the year 1000. Sherira did not assume office as ...
Sura

Sura  

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Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
Site of one of the Babylonian Jewish academies. Sura was an important centre of Torah study. It was established by Rav in 219 ce. It was known as the ‘yeshivah ...
Yehuda Bar Il’ai

Yehuda Bar Il’ai  

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Overview Page
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Religion
(2d cent.), tanna’ generally referred to simply as R. Yehuda; one of the five most renowned disciples of R. ʿAqiva’. He was the teacher of R. Yehuda ha-Nasi’, who later ...
Yehudai ben Naḥman

Yehudai ben Naḥman  

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Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
(8th cent.). Head of the Jewish academy of Sura. He was the first gaon to write a book, the Halakhot Pesukot, and the first to compile responsa. He rested his ...
Yeshivah

Yeshivah  

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Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
(pl. yeshivot).Institute of Jewish Talmudic learning. The term ‘yeshiva’ is applied to the academies of Jewish learning in Babylonia and Erez Israel Last in which the amoraim studied the ...

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