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Abū Ḥanīfa

(d. 767)

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Abu Ishaq Ibrahim ibn ʿAli Shirazi

Abu Ishaq Ibrahim ibn ʿAli Shirazi  

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(a.h. 393/1003 c.e.–a.h. 476/1083 c.e.).A leading scholar of the Iraqi branch of the Shafiʿi school of law, al-Shirazi was born in Firuzabad in what is today southern Iran. He ...
Abu Ja‘far al-Ahwal, Muhammad b. al-Nu‘man

Abu Ja‘far al-Ahwal, Muhammad b. al-Nu‘man  

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(d. after 183 / 799)Abu Ja‘far Muhammad (b. ‘Ali) b. al-Nu‘man al-Bajali al-Kufi al-Sayrafi, Imami theologian, was probably born in the first quarter of the second century / 718–43. ...
Duty (Farḍ)

Duty (Farḍ)  

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Farḍ (plural furūḍ; also farīd;̣a, plural farāʾid;̣) in the sense of a religious duty is regarded by the majority of Muslim jurists as synonymous with wājib (plural wājibāt), an obligatory ...
Ḥanafites

Ḥanafites  

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Religion
The followers of a religious school named after the jurist Abū Ḥanīfa, which grew out of the old Kufan and Basran law schools. Two of Abū Ḥanīfa's pupils, Abū Yūsuf ...
Maturidi, Abu Mansur

Maturidi, Abu Mansur  

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(c.247–333 / c.861–944)Abu Mansur Muhammad b. Muhammad b. Mahmud was born at Maturid, a locality in Samarkand, Transoxiana. The exact date of his birth is unknown, but it seems ...
Muhammad ibn al-Hasan Shaybani

Muhammad ibn al-Hasan Shaybani  

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(d. 804)Jurist and student of Abu Hanifah and Malik ibn Anas. Trained in jurisprudence of both the Iraqi and Medina schools. Insisted on the decisive role of hadith in Islamic law. Held a high ...
Muhammad ibn Idris al- Shafiʿi

Muhammad ibn Idris al- Shafiʿi  

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(d. 819/20)Jurist, theologian, and founder of the Shafii school of Islamic law. Born in Gaza. Died in Egypt. Educated in Quran, hadith, and fiqh in Mecca, Medina, and Iraq. Systematized the ...
Schools of Law, Muslim

Schools of Law, Muslim  

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Religion
(Arab., madhab, pl., madhāhib, ‘direction’).Muslim life is founded on Qurʾān, which itself was first expressed in the lives and words of the Prophet Muḥammad and his Companions. Their words ...
Usurpation

Usurpation  

A common phenomenon of late Roman and Byz. political life, was neither terminologically nor legally defined in Byz. The most usual term for usurpation of power by an illegal claimant ...

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