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Abdul Hamid II

(1842—1918) Ottoman sultan 1876–1909

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İttihad-i Muhammadi Cemiyeti

İttihad-i Muhammadi Cemiyeti  

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Religion
Muhammadan Union, political and religious organization founded by Hafiz Dervis Vahdeti, a Naqshbandi Sufi from Cyprus, via the newspaper Volkan in 1909. Known for its role in the insurrection of ...
Ottoman Empire

Ottoman Empire  

The Muslim empire of the Turks (1299–1922), established in northern Anatolia by Osman I and expanded by his successors to include all of Asia Minor and much of south-east Europe. Ottoman power ...
Pan-Islam

Pan-Islam  

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Religion
Movements to unify the Muslim world, particularly in reaction against Western threats of encroachment. Theoretically, Pan-Islam is a natural expression of the fundamental and necessary Muslim concept ...
Tanzimat

Tanzimat  

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Religion
Turkish. Reforms or regulation. Denotes a period of social and political reform that transformed the Ottoman Empire by integrating institutions deliberately copied from Western Europe; a response to ...
Turkey

Turkey  

Tension between Islamists and secularists threatens democracy and EU accessionTurkey is predominantly mountainous. The lowlands are mostly confined to coastal areas around the Black Sea, the Aegean, ...

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