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Muhammad Abduh

(1849—1905)

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al- Azhar

al- Azhar  

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Overview Page
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Religion
Founded in 969/970, this Cairene university may have been named for the prophet Muhammad's daughter Fatimah “al-Zahra” (the brilliant), the eponymous ancestor of the Fatimids, founder of Cairo. ...
Burhanuddin al-Helmy

Burhanuddin al-Helmy  

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Philosophy
(1329–89 / 1911–69)Burhanuddin bin Haji Muhammad Nor, better known as Burhanuddin al-Helmy, was a thinker-cum-politician in the transition era of pre- and post-independence Malaysia. He was born into ...
consensus

consensus  

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1. General agreement about some issue within a group or in public opinion: compare dissensus.2. Shared ideas, norms, and values in a society (for functionalists, particularly Parsons, the basis of ...
exegesis

exegesis  

Critical interpretation or explanation of a text, traditionally associated with religious scriptures, but now used with reference to close readings and analyses of any text.
fundamentalism

fundamentalism  

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Religion
A form of Protestant Christianity which upholds belief in the strict and literal interpretation of the Bible, including its narratives, doctrines, prophecies, and moral laws. Also, strict maintenance ...
Ḥasan al-Bannā’

Ḥasan al-Bannā’  

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Philosophy
(1906–49).The founder and leader of al-Ikhwān al-Muslimūn in Egypt. Ḥasan al-Bannā’ studied at al-Azhar and qualified as a teacher. In 1928, he founded the al-Ikhwān at Ismaʿiliyya. He attracted ...
Hüseyin Efendi Cozo

Hüseyin Efendi Cozo  

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Philosophy
(1330–1402 / 1912–82)Hüseyin Efendi was born in Bare, a village of Gorajde (Bosnia) on 17 Rajab 1330 / 3 July 1912, and died in Sarajevo on 6 Shawwal 1402 ...
Islamic State

Islamic State  

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Religion
Modern ideological position associated with political Islam. In classical theory, the Islamic concept of state is based on the principles of group/community, justice, and leadership. The legitimacy ...
Ismail Gaspirali

Ismail Gaspirali  

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Philosophy
(1851–1914)The famous Turkish intellectual, political activist and educationist of czarist Russia, Gaspıralı (also known by the Russian version of his name, Gasprinski) was born in Bhçesaray, Crimea. ...
Jamal al-Din al- Afghani

Jamal al-Din al- Afghani  

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Religion
(d. 1897)Thinker and political activist. Born and raised in Iran, although claimed to be of Afghan origin. Educated in Iran and Iraq. Traveled to India, where he came into contact with British ...
jihad

jihad  

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Religion
A holy war undertaken by Muslims against unbelievers. The name comes from Arabic jihād, literally ‘effort’, expressing, in Muslim thought, struggle on behalf of God and Islam.
Mehmet Akіf Ersoy

Mehmet Akіf Ersoy  

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Philosophy
(1873–1936)The pan-Islamist thinker and the poet of the Turkish national anthem, Mehmet Akif Ersoy was born in Fatih, Istanbul. He received his early education in Fatih and learned Arabic ...
miracle

miracle  

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Religion
A surprising and welcome event that is not explicable by natural or scientific laws and is therefore considered to be the work of a divine agency. Recorded from Middle English, the word comes via Old ...
Modernism

Modernism  

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Subject:
Philosophy
Islamic modernism—the reform of Islamic tradition through emphasis on the Quran and Sunnah to meet the needs of modern society, including its institutions and technology—arose in the nineteenth ...
Muhammad Rashid Rida

Muhammad Rashid Rida  

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Religion
(d. 1935)Syrian Islamic revivalist, reformer, and writer. Lived in Egypt from 1897 until his death. Close associate and disciple of Muhammad Abduh. Published the journal Al-manar to articulate and ...
Mustafa al- Maraghi

Mustafa al- Maraghi  

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Religion
(d. 1945)Egyptian modernist reformer and rector of al-Azhar. Called for social, legal, and educational reforms. Pursued an aggressive campaign to integrate modern sciences into al-Azhar's curriculum. ...
Mustafa Sabri Efendi

Mustafa Sabri Efendi  

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Philosophy
(1869–1954)The last Shaykh al-Islam of the Ottoman Empire, Mustafa Sabri Efendi was born in Tokat, Turkey. He completed his education in Kayseri. He became a teacher at the Fatih ...
Mu'tazila

Mu'tazila  

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Religion
The Muʿtazilah were a major theological school of Islam that was renowned for holding reason (ʿaql) above scripture and other sources of religious knowledge and for its development of the ...
Rashid Rida

Rashid Rida  

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Subject:
Philosophy
(1865–1935)Muhammad Rashid Rida (Ridha) was born in Tripoli, Lebanon and attended a school based on the views of a local shaykh, Husayn al-Jisr, who based the curriculum on the ...
Rāziq, ʿAlī ʿAbd al-

Rāziq, ʿAlī ʿAbd al-  

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Religion
ʿAlī ʿAbd al-Rāziq (1888–1966)was an Egyptian sharīʿah (Islamic law) judge, controversial intellectual, and author of al-Islām wa uṣūl al-ḥukm: Baḥth fī al-khilāfah wa al-ḥukūmah fī al-Islām (Islam ...

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