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Abdul Aziz ibn Saud

Abdul Aziz ibn Saud  

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(b. 24 Nov. 1880, d. 9 Nov. 1953).King of Saudi Arabia 1932–53 Born in Riyadh of the Wahabi dynasty, he was forced into exile in Kuwait in 1902. From there, he organized and led a successful Bedouin ...
Abū Ḥanīfa

Abū Ḥanīfa  

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(d. 767 (ah 150).Muslim theologian and jurist, and founder of the Ḥanafites (Kufan) law school (sharīʿa). Abū Ḥanīfa's use of qiyās (analogy), istiḥsān (juristic preference), raʾy (personal ...
Aghlabids

Aghlabids  

A 9th-c. Arab dynasty, the Aghlabids governed Ifrīkiya in the name of the Abbasids, with Kairouan for capital. Rapidly becoming autonomous, the Aghlabids made Ifrīkiya the most powerful and ...
al- Abbas

al- Abbas  

(c.567–c.653)*Muhammad’s uncle; a merchant who accepted Islam and joined in the conquest of Mecca (630). The Abbasid caliphal dynasty, which took its name from him, claimed descent from his son Abd ...
al-ʿAbbās b. ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib

al-ʿAbbās b. ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib  

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(d. 652–3 (ah 32).An uncle of the Prophet Muḥammad. The ʿAbbāsid dynasty took its name from him, being descended from his son.
Aleppo

Aleppo  

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An ancient city in northern Syria, which was formerly an important commercial centre on the trade route between the Mediterranean and the countries of the East.
Al-Farabi

Al-Farabi  

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(c.870–950)The ‘second teacher’ after Aristotle of Islamic philosophy. Al-Farabi was one of the first philosophers to transmit Aristotelian logic to the Islamic world. He wrote extensively on logic, ...
Arab conquests

Arab conquests  

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Wars which, in the century after the death of Muhammad in 632, created an empire stretching from Spain to the Indus valley. Beginning as a jihad (holy war) against the apostasy of the Arabian tribes ...
Arabs

Arabs  

Ancient tribes and peoples who lived in, and around the modern Arabian peninsula. Herodotus was acquainted with the Arabs of southern Palestine and the Sinai, and mentions the Arabs of the incense ...
art and architecture: Seljuk

art and architecture: Seljuk  

Art and architecture produced during the Seljuk period is important in that it defined aesthetic and architectural expression in the central and eastern Islamic lands for the next several centuries. ...
arts of the Book

arts of the Book  

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The arts of the book were of extraordinary importance throughout the Islamic lands because of the primacy Islam accorded the written word. The Islamic world inherited earlier traditions of book ...
assassins

assassins  

The Nizari branch of Ismaili Muslims at the time of the Crusades, renowned as militant fanatics and popularly supposed to use hashish before going on murder missions. The name comes (in the mid 16th ...
ʿAwāṣim and Thughūr

ʿAwāṣim and Thughūr  

The Muslim regions and their defenses and fortifications along the Syrian-Anatolian border of Byz. from the time of ʿUmar to the late 10th C. The ʿAwāṣim were the inner regions ...
Baghdad

Baghdad  

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The capital of modern-day Iraq, on the River Tigris, which was a thriving city under the Abbasid caliphs, notably Harun of Chancery, in the 8th and 9th centuries.
Beirut

Beirut  

Ancient Phoenician city, a bishopric by the late 4th century, it also had a famous law school. Damaged by earthquake in 551, the city was captured by the Arabs in ...
Būyids

Būyids  

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Islamic dynasty that ruled in Iran and Iraq from 932 to 1062. Civil wars, the erosion of caliphal power by a Turkish military caste, corrupt administration and racial tensions during ...
Cairo

Cairo  

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(Arab., al-Qāhira, ‘the victorious’, but also from al-Qāhir, Mars, the city of Mars).Capital city of the Fāṭimids, established by al-Muʿizz in 969 (ah 358). It was originally called al-Manṣūriyya ...
caliph

caliph  

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The chief Muslim civil and religious ruler, regarded as the successor of Muhammad. The caliph ruled in Baghdad until 1258 and then in Egypt until the Ottoman conquest of 1517; the title was then held ...
caliphate

caliphate  

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Formerly, the central ruling office of Islam. The first caliph (Arabic, khalifa, “deputy of God” or “successor of his Prophet”) after the Prophet Muhammad's death in 632 was his father-in-law Abu ...
Caliphate of Córdoba

Caliphate of Córdoba  

Umayyad and Ḥammūdid DynastiesLévi-Provençal, E., Histoire de l'Espagne musulmane (3 vols., Paris, 1950–67).Scales, P. C., The Fall of the Caliphate of Córdoba (Leiden, 1994).756–788‛Abd al-Raḥmān I ...

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