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American Notes for General Circulation

Travel account by Dickens, published in 1842. Dickens visited the U.S. (Jan.–May 1842) in a tour that took him from Boston and New York to Canada and as far west as St. Louis. His book is ...

Environmentalism in Latin America

Environmentalism in Latin America   Reference library

Guillermo Castro Herrera

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latin American Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2021
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
6,446 words

...and that of North America with conservation and the control of environmental risks and damages, coincide in this general panorama with African concerns for their colonial legacy, and the Asian vision of culture of nature as a component of a millennial civilization. Latin America’s environmentalism, for its part, is closely associated with the demand for environmental justice and a political ecology approach to environmental conflicts. The Latin American Environment Latin America covers an area of 19.2 million square kilometers, with a population of some 600...

Panama, Its Politics, and the Canal Against Itself

Panama, Its Politics, and the Canal Against Itself   Reference library

Guillermo Castro Herrera

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latin American Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2021
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
7,246 words

...thus assign rank and influence to the others. It is a general illumination which bathes all the other colors and modifies their particularity. It is a particular ether which determines the specific gravity of every being which has materialized within it. ( Marx, 1973, pp. 106–109 ) In the case of Panama, that “specific kind of production which predominates over the rest, whose relations thus assign rank and influence to the others” has been—and is—the provision of services for the circulation of capital. This makes the country unique among its...

Italy’s LGBT Movement and Interest Groups

Italy’s LGBT Movement and Interest Groups   Reference library

Massimo Prearo

The Oxford Encyclopedia of LGBT Politics and Policy

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2021
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
8,111 words

... The Digest—National Italian American Bar Association Law Journal , 25 , 1–31. Notes 1. The May 1968 protests in Europe are considered the starting point of a broader wave of protests against traditional society. In Italy, as in France, for instance, even if many of the gay and lesbian activists who went on to participate in the homosexual revolutionary movements were already part of the demonstrations and of leftist groups and collectives, massive sexual mobilizations appeared only in and after 1970 ( Prearo, 2011 ). For a historiographical and...

Haiti: Deconstructing Military Entanglements in Politics

Haiti: Deconstructing Military Entanglements in Politics   Reference library

Michel S. Laguerre

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Military in Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
11,032 words

...as they curtail free circulation in the country. The groups have also begun to engage in kidnapping of civilians including physicians, clergy, students, and policemen, and sustain a climate of insecurity all over the country. Furthermore, the ongoing transmission of COVID-19 has added more stress to the miseries of the common people. What made the socio-political context ripe for a coup was public disagreement between the president and his political party, Parti Haitien Tet Kale (PHTK). PHTK was publicly against the referendum for a new constitution that...

Transnational Administration of Regional and Global Policies

Transnational Administration of Regional and Global Policies   Reference library

Kim Moloney and Diane Stone

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Public Administration

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
10,010 words

...and/or governments as brokers of multidirectional policy transfers “Fast policy” multiscalar circulation of models by groups of actors, expert networks, scientific communities Transparency More likely to be open access to information if state is democratic Can be made open access to information by civil society Restricted “real”-world access to IPA deliberations or processes Often opaque; can be made transparent by civil society or other powerful actors (e.g., IOs) Note: IO, international organization; IPA, international public administration; NGO,...

Responsibility to Protect

Responsibility to Protect   Reference library

James A. Paul and Céline Nahory

The Oxford Companion to International Relations

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
3,456 words

...closely with ideas about muscular global betterment that have found wide circulation in the West in the post–Cold War era. Political leaders and the mass media have drawn on this discourse to frame and to explain controversial military campaigns in such places as the Balkans, Somalia, Afghanistan, Iraq, and Libya. By presenting these conflicts as moral initiatives in defense of human rights, Western leaders have overcome (or reduced) public opposition to foreign wars and won backing for the repeated deployment of military force. Origins and Evolution of the Doctrine...

Brazil’s LGBT Movement and Interest Groups

Brazil’s LGBT Movement and Interest Groups   Reference library

Jacob R. Longaker

The Oxford Encyclopedia of LGBT Politics and Policy

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2021
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
8,098 words

...in both the judicial and executive arenas of politics. This approach accounts for many policy successes in the country, including rectification of names in accordance with gender identity on official documents for the trans population in 2018 ; nationwide same-sex-partnership recognition for lesbians, gays, and bisexuals in 2011 ; and marriage equality in 2013 . Brazilian LGBT Movement Organizing Homosexual Consciousness-Raising. Scholarship on sexuality in Latin America notes the importance of sexual acts in establishing individual and collective...

Military Coups D’État and Their Causes

Military Coups D’État and Their Causes   Reference library

Fabrice Lehoucq

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Military in Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
10,445 words

...19% and 36% of the time in 18 Latin American countries between 1950 and 2016 ( Lehoucq, 2017 ). Twenty-eight percent of the coups, for example, in the Center for Systemic Peace (CSP)—the Polity IV ( 2012 ) —database are mistakes ( Marshall & Marshall, 2016 ). Most errors consist of failing to note that the military toppled the chief executive. This draws on the database of this article’s author, which identifies 71 occasions when the military overthrew the president during these years in 18 Latin American countries (which itself is part of a larger...

Climate Change Politics in Latin America and the Caribbean

Climate Change Politics in Latin America and the Caribbean   Reference library

Matías Franchini

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latin American Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2021
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
11,958 words
Illustration(s):
2

...of the Amazon rainforest, which is a result of extreme deforestation and climate change ( Nobre et al., 2016 ), could trigger major changes in the atmospheric circulation of the area and threaten the economic and social prospects of a region that depends heavily on agriculture, particularly for poverty alleviation and food security ( United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean [CEPAL], 2017a ; Viola & Franchini, 2018b ). From the political point of view, humanity’s efforts to mitigate climate change have been limited ( IPCC...

Career Patterns in Administration

Career Patterns in Administration   Reference library

Sylvia Veit

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Public Administration

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
8,363 words

...career patterns in the People’s Republic of China, 1949–1994. Comparative Political Studies , 34 (9), 1036–1062. Note 1. Some federal states have implemented civil service reforms in recent years that converted the system of four horizontal classes into a system of one, two, or three horizontal classes. Sylvia Veit 1. Some federal states have implemented civil service reforms in recent years that converted the system of four horizontal classes into a system of one, two, or three horizontal...

Historical Development of American Public Administration

Historical Development of American Public Administration   Reference library

Mordecai Lee

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Public Administration

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
12,665 words

...began making a profit, which he was entitled to pocket. In 1774 , the British government fired him for his rebellious political stance ( Isaacson, 2003 , p. 157). However, a year later, he was restored to his role by the Continental Congress and thus was the first postmaster general of the nascent independent country. (The first postmaster general under the new Constitution was Samuel Osgood, appointed by Washington in 1789 ). For early Americans, the “postal system was the central government” ( John, 1995 , p. 4; emphasis in original). It served as...

Spain’s LGBT Movement

Spain’s LGBT Movement   Reference library

Kerman Calvo and J. Ignacio Pichardo

The Oxford Encyclopedia of LGBT Politics and Policy

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2021
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
9,819 words

...assimilation to registration in social security]. Iuslabor , 1 . Whittier, N. (1997). Political generations, micro-cohorts and the transformation of social movements. American Journal of Sociology , 62 , 760–778. Notes 1. This article generally uses either the acronym LGBT or the expression sexual minorities , unless historical accuracy suggests a different term (such as, for instance, gay liberation , or gay and lesbian liberation to refer to activism during the 1970s/1980s). 2. The main results of this survey can be found at ...

An International LGBT Movement

An International LGBT Movement   Reference library

Ryan Thoreson

The Oxford Encyclopedia of LGBT Politics and Policy

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2021
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
10,012 words

...Commonwealth and the need for a decolonizing, intersectional politics. The Sociological Review , 65 (4), 644–662. Worsnip, P. (2008). UN divided over gay rights declaration . Reuters . Wright, R. , & Branigin, W. (2007, September 24). Ahmadinejad met with protests, criticism at Columbia University . Washington Post . Young, R. M. , & Meyer, I. H. (2005). The trouble with “MSM” and “WSW”: Erasure of the sexual-minority person in public health discourse. American Journal of Public Health , 95 (7), 1144–1149. Notes 1. In this article, the...

Governing Africa’s Seas in the Neoliberal Era

Governing Africa’s Seas in the Neoliberal Era   Reference library

Tarik Dahou and Brenda Chalfin

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
8,904 words

...members. Indicating the interdependence of securitization and marketization in late capitalism, for African players, compliance is key to participation in international supply chains and in many cases warrants outsourcing control of key state assets. Reflecting these pressures and conditions, three spatial formations prevail in which ports play a central role even if they are not always a central place as in earlier orders of maritime commercial circulation. The emerging array of African mega-ports is one configuration where ports remain nodal. Involving...

LGBT Movements in Taiwan, Hong Kong, and China

LGBT Movements in Taiwan, Hong Kong, and China   Reference library

Travis S. K. Kong, Hsiao-wei Kuan, Sky H. L. Lau, and Sara L. Friedman

The Oxford Encyclopedia of LGBT Politics and Policy

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2021
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
14,260 words

...platforms for live-streaming, e-commerce, and health services, promoting tongzhi visibility while strategically framing its content and for-profit orientation to avoid government censorship ( Liu, 2020 ; Wang, 2019 ; Yu, 2018 ). On the other hand, the Chinese government under President Xi Jinping has moved forcefully to impose tighter controls over social media platforms, resulting in less room for LGBT cultural visibility. In 2015 , gay filmmaker Fan Popo successfully sued the state media regulator for blocking Internet circulation of his film ...

Queer as Materialism

Queer as Materialism   Reference library

Sophie Noyé and Gianfranco Rebucini

The Oxford Encyclopedia of LGBT Politics and Policy

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2021
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
13,099 words

... 1997 , p. 1). A few years later, in the introduction to a collective work, Arnaldo Cruz-Malavé and Martin Manalansan IV affirmed that “Queerness is now global” ( 2002 , p. 1). Through this formula, the two authors also criticized gay, lesbian, and queer studies that had produced knowledge almost exclusively based on the history of the movements of white Euro-American sexual minorities. This postcolonial theoretical shift sought to provincialize sexual epistemology and the sites of application of queer theories, particularly by taking into account issues of...

What Do We Know About Global Financial Crises? Putting IPE and Economics in Conversation

What Do We Know About Global Financial Crises? Putting IPE and Economics in Conversation   Reference library

Michael Lee

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Empirical International Relations Theory

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
10,624 words

...of the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision. Review of International Political Economy , 19 (4), 663–668. Zingales, L. (2015). Does finance benefit society? Journal of Finance , 70 (4), 1327–1363. Notes 1. Mortgages are considered “underwater” if a borrower owes more than the market value of the home. 2. Rumors of the demise of American hegemony in the 1980s may have been greatly exaggerated. 3. Financialization in late 19th-century Britain poses less of a mystery. It is more conceivable that, at the heart of a vast empire with a restricted...

Capitalist Peace Theory: A Critical Appraisal

Capitalist Peace Theory: A Critical Appraisal   Reference library

Gerald Schneider

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Empirical International Relations Theory

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
7,808 words

... Weede, E. (in press). The expansion of economic freedom and the capitalist peace. In Encyclopedia of empirical international relations . Oxford: Oxford University Press. Notes 1. The empirical literature does not often sufficiently differentiate between the internal and the external openness. Although they use a measure for the former (contract-intensive money in circulation, life insurance contracts) and the latter (trade, FDI), the theoretical argument of Powell and Chacha ( 2016 ) largely stresses economic interdependence, also often dubbed...

The European Court of Justice (ECJ)

The European Court of Justice (ECJ)   Reference library

Sabine Saurugger and Fabien Terpan

The Oxford Encyclopedia of European Union Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2021
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
13,113 words

...The 28 judges in the Court of Justice are assisted by 11 advocates general, a post that takes inspiration from the French “rapporteur public” within the Conseil d’État. Advocates general are charged with the task of making reasoned submissions on cases brought before them. The Statute of the CJEU allows for the General Court to be assisted by advocates general, but this has not occurred so far. Instead, each judge at the General Court is allowed to perform the function of an advocate general in difficult cases, but this happens very rarely. According to the...

Strategic Culture Theory: What, Why, and How

Strategic Culture Theory: What, Why, and How   Reference library

Edward Lock

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Empirical International Relations Theory

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
9,495 words

...than many currently in circulation, primarily because it does not confuse the question of what strategic culture is with questions about why scholars should study strategic culture and where it should be sought. The adoption of this definition is advocated here on the grounds that it is crystal clear about what strategic culture is, and because it leaves questions about where and how strategic culture operates to be answered through empirical investigation. This article proceeds in three steps. The first section provides evidence for some of the confusion...

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