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Overview

American Notes for General Circulation

Travel account by Dickens, published in 1842. Dickens visited the U.S. (Jan.–May 1842) in a tour that took him from Boston and New York to Canada and as far west as St. Louis. His book is ...

Maritime Climate

Maritime Climate   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Science and technology, Earth Sciences and Geography, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
4,268 words
Illustration(s):
2

...34 Honolulu, Hawaii 4.3 49 * Using Kerner's index where the higher the value the more maritime the climate. [ See also Dynamics ; and General Circulation .] Bibliography Broecker, W. “ The Great Ocean Conveyor .” Oceanography 4 (1991) 79–89. Conrad, V. “ Usual Formulas of Continentality and Their Limits of Validity .” Transactions of American Geophysical Union 27 (1946): 663–664. Driscoll, D. M. , and J. Fong . “ Continentality: A Basic Climatic Parameter Re-examined .” International Journal of Climatology 12 (1992): 185–192. Gray, W. M. “...

Ocean Dynamics

Ocean Dynamics   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
6,281 words
Illustration(s):
7

...exchanges heat with the atmosphere. This system of meridional overturning cells constitutes the thermohaline circulation for the global ocean. Net warm-to-cold-water conversion occurs in the northern North Atlantic, while cold-to-warm-water conversion occurs in the subtropical Indian and Pacific Oceans. Of note is the warm surface current that wends its way through each of the basins to terminate in the northern North Atlantic, where it supplies water for the formation of deep water. While the schematic shows principal pathways of the conveyor belt system, it...

Arid Climates

Arid Climates   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Science and technology, Earth Sciences and Geography, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
1,742 words
Illustration(s):
2

...the deep convection (upward motion) necessary for heavy rain. Subtropical anticyclones are a permanent feature of the general circulation of the atmosphere, and they anchor the downward branch of the Hadley cell (the circulation feature that also includes rising motion near the equator and poleward flow aloft toward the subtropics). [ See General Circulation .] The entire Saudi Arabian Peninsula experiences a desert climate under the influence of sinking air currents of both Hadley and Walker circulation cells. A generalized model of continental...

El Niño, La Niña, and the Southern Oscillation

El Niño, La Niña, and the Southern Oscillation   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Science and technology, Earth Sciences and Geography, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
2,561 words
Illustration(s):
2

...atmosphere. Similar interactions are believed to contribute to climate variability in generalfor example, prolonged drought in Africa, failure of the monsoons over India, and differences in the winter severities of northern America and Europe. [ See also Tropical Circulations .] Bibliography Cane, M. “ The Evolution of El Niño, Past and Future .” Earth and Planetary Science Letters 230, no. 3–4 (2005): 227–240. Philander, S. G. H. “ El Niño and La Nina .” American Scientist 77, no. 5 (1989): 451–459. Philander, S. G. H. El Niño, La Niña and the...

Regional Patterns of Climate Change

Regional Patterns of Climate Change   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
2,503 words
Illustration(s):
6

...of greater (lesser) storminess. Also note that the land-ocean SLP contrast over Asia decreases in future climate conditions, which indicates a weakening of the South and East Asia monsoon circulations. Monsoon rain still increases, however, due to the greater water-holding capacity of the warmer future atmosphere. Regional Patterns of Climate Change. Figure 2. Same as Figure 1 but for precipitation change. Units are % of 1961–1990 precipitation. Regional Patterns of Climate Change. Figure 3. Same as Figure 1 but for sea level pressure (SLP). Units are...

Runoff

Runoff   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011

...W. H. Freeman, 1978. Famiglietti, J. S. , and E. F. Wood . “Evapotranspiration and Runoff from Large Land Areas: Land Surface Hydrology for Atmospheric General Circulation Models.” In Land Surface–Atmosphere Interactions for Climate Modeling , edited by F. F. Wood , pp. 179–204. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer, 1991. Horton, R. E. “ The Role of Infiltration in the Hydrological Cycle .” Transactions of the American Geophysical Union 14 (1933): 446–460. Korzun, V. I. , ed. World Water Balance and Water Resources of the Earth . Paris: UNESCO, 1978....

Cyclones

Cyclones   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Science and technology, Earth Sciences and Geography, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
14,580 words
Illustration(s):
7

...[This entry consists of five articles: Overview Explosive Cyclones Midlatitude Cyclones Subtropical Cyclones Tropical Cyclones The first article provides a general survey of the phenomena of cyclones, and the companion articles provide more detail of the specific types. For more general discussion , see Storms . ] An Overview Cyclones are horizontal air circulations that rotate counterclockwise in the Northern Hemisphere and clockwise in the Southern Hemisphere. At the center of the cyclone, the atmospheric pressure is lower than at surrounding...

Weather Forecasting

Weather Forecasting   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...but they are run for decades rather than hours. These models are called general circulation models (GCMs), and are coupled to models of the oceans. To produce a climate forecast, the GCM is run for a number of past and future decades; the results for the predicted present climate are compared with our current knowledge of global climate. Once the GCM is tuned to model the present climate, it can be used to predict future climates—for example, providing estimates of global warming due to the increase in greenhouse gases. A weather forecast can easily be...

Climate Change

Climate Change   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
12,546 words
Illustration(s):
10

...the Asian monsoonal circulation system; and accentuated continental-scale chemical weathering and denudation, which further reduced global atmospheric carbon dioxide levels. The formation of the Tibetan Plateau was accompanied by mountain building along the Pacific margin of South America, in western North America, and in the rift system of East Africa, which also contributed to the global cooling trend. The closure of the Isthmus of Panama around three million years ago caused significant reorganizations of North Atlantic ocean circulation, and the...

Drought

Drought   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
6,551 words
Illustration(s):
8

...of the ITCZ and other circulation features. Drought: Sahel Drought in West Africa. Figure 6. Mean Rainfall for the Decade 1980–1989, Expressed as a Percentage Departure from the Long-Term Mean.Station data are averaged over 1° squares; positive values are shaded. More recent investigations have identified links between drought and sea surface temperatures and also between drought and characteristics of the atmospheric general circulation, such as the jet streams prevailing over West Africa and the intensity of other circulation features such as the Hadley...

Blocking

Blocking   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Science and technology, Earth Sciences and Geography, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
2,468 words
Illustration(s):
3

...Dole, R. M. “Linking Weather and Climate.” In Synoptic-Dynamic Meteorology and Weather Analysis and Forecasting: A Tribute to Fred Sanders , edited by L. F. Bosart and H. B. Bluestein , pp. 297–348. Boston: American Meteorological Society, 2008. Dole, R. M. “Persistent Anomalies of the Extratropical Northern Hemisphere Wintertime Circulation.” In Large-Scale Dynamical Processes in the Atmosphere , edited by B. J. Hoskins and R. P. Pearce , pp. 95–109. New York: Academic Press, 1983. Green, J. S. A. “ The Weather during July 1976: Some Dynamical...

Temperate Climate

Temperate Climate   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Science and technology, Earth Sciences and Geography, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
2,093 words
Illustration(s):
1

...slow to rise in the spring. The monthly temperature change between January and April in Bismarck is 19.9°C (35.8°F), three and one-half times that of Seattle (5.8°C or 10.4°F) and about twice that of Portland, Maine (11.8°C or 21.3°F). A characteristic feature of the general atmospheric circulation in the middle latitudes is the relatively rapid succession of weather systems, which in both hemispheres are embedded in the belt of mean tropospheric westerly winds ( Houghton, 1985 ; Oliver and Fairbridge, 1987 ). The belt of mean westerly winds is maintained by...

Environmental Economics and Uncertainty: Review and a Machine Learning Outlook

Environmental Economics and Uncertainty: Review and a Machine Learning Outlook   Reference library

Ruda Zhang, Patrick Wingo, Rodrigo Duran, Kelly Rose, Jennifer Bauer, and Roger Ghanem

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Environmental Economics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics, Environment
Length:
10,089 words
Illustration(s):
9

...by assimilating observations with an ocean general circulation model (OGCM). Ocean state is a set of hydrodynamic variables, which may include ocean current velocity components, water temperature, water salinity, sea surface elevation, and horizontal wind stresses at the sea surface, which is a boundary condition. Regional ocean models covering the Gulf of Mexico includes the Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM) Gulf of Mexico 1/25 degree Analysis (GOMl0.04), and the Navy Coastal Ocean Model (NCOM) American Seas (AmSeas). The NCOM AmSeas data have a...

Regional Assessment

Regional Assessment   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
2,931 words
Illustration(s):
1

...or local scales. It brings a systems approach that analyzes the contributions of regions to global change and, in turn, traces regional impacts and potentials for adaptation to change and mitigation of adverse activities. In the context of climate change, regional assessment includes, on the one hand, local contributions to greenhouse gases and, on the other hand, downscaling from general circulation models to local climate change, tracing the consequences of that change, suggesting the resulting impacts on society, and specifying possible responses. Human...

Hydrological Cycle

Hydrological Cycle   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Science and technology, Earth Sciences and Geography, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
3,376 words
Illustration(s):
1

...upward during precipitation, with more moisture there is greater latent heat released and thus less need for the overall circulation to be as vigorous. An implication is that large-scale overturning circulations, such as Hadley and Walker cells, are apt to weaken. A further implication is that there must be a decrease in light and moderate rains and/or a decrease in the frequency of rain events, as found in several studies. Thus, the prospect may be for fewer but more intense rainfall—or snowfall—events. Hence, extreme weather events such as heavy rainfall...

El Niño–Southern Oscillation

El Niño–Southern Oscillation   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
3,236 words
Illustration(s):
3

...for both private and public gain. The less developed nations of the world need help and guidance to use climate information effectively. Institutions have arisen, especially the International Research Institute for Climate Prediction, to do the physical and social science research needed to apply climate forecast information successfully in less developed parts of the world. See also Atmosphere Dynamics . Internet Resources A number of Web sites are now available for learning about El Niño and for watching the evolution of El Niño. A general site with...

Energetics

Energetics   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Science and technology, Earth Sciences and Geography, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
4,145 words
Illustration(s):
2

...than average at that latitude to be correlated with warmer-than-average temperatures. Stationary eddy transport is due to standing waves in the zonal circulation that are seen as stationary patterns in the jet stream. [ See General Circulation ; and Meridional Circulations .] In the tropics, within 20 degrees of the equator, solar heating exceeds infrared cooling by about 70 watts per square meter. About 50 watts per square meter of this is transported poleward by the atmosphere, primarily in the form of zonal-mean and stationary eddy flows, with the...

Scales

Scales   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Science and technology, Earth Sciences and Geography, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
3,412 words
Illustration(s):
1

...set of equations. [ See Numerical Methods .] Because of limited computational resources, only a limited number of operations can be carried out within the available time period. Accordingly, the size of the grid and the length of the prediction are defined. For instance, current general circulation models used in climate studies typically represent the Earth's surface with a horizontal resolution (the distance between two neighboring grid points) of 50–100 kilometers and the vertical structure of the atmosphere as having around 30 layers. [ See Models and...

History, Climate, and Weather

History, Climate, and Weather   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Science and technology, Earth Sciences and Geography, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
2,492 words
Illustration(s):
2

...American archeologist Rhys Carpenter put forward a new, mainly meteorological interpretation of the archeological findings. Carpenter suggested that a warm, dry climate engulfed Greece around 1200 bce and that the reduced rainfall deprived the Mycenaeans of their mainly agricultural livelihood. In his interpretation, there were no foreign intruders, and the destruction was probably the work of the poorer Mycenaean classes. He further postulated that the atmospheric circulation belts underwent a shift northward, bringing Greece into the same circulation...

Industrial Policy as an Environmental Policy: Forest Preservation and the Industrialization of Manaus

Industrial Policy as an Environmental Policy: Forest Preservation and the Industrialization of Manaus   Reference library

Alexandre A. F. Rivas and James R. Kahn

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Environmental Economics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics, Environment
Length:
11,077 words
Illustration(s):
6

...Central America, countries such as the Dominican Republic, El Salvador, and Honduras have used free trade zones to take advantage of preferential access to U.S. markets and generated large-scale manufacturing sectors in economies that previously depended on agricultural commodities. However, it is interesting to note that reviews regarding SEZs in South America are scarce in the literature. Perhaps one of the reasons for this is due to its relatively lower importance in relation to the most successful zones in Asia and Central America. In South America, the...

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