Update
The Oxford Biblical Studies Online and Oxford Islamic Studies Online have retired. Content you previously purchased on Oxford Biblical Studies Online or Oxford Islamic Studies Online has now moved to Oxford Reference, Oxford Handbooks Online, Oxford Scholarship Online, or What Everyone Needs to Know®. For information on how to continue to view articles visit the subscriber services page.
Dismiss

You are looking at 1-20 of 55 entries  for:

  • All: American Notes for General Circulation x
clear all

View:

Overview

American Notes for General Circulation

Travel account by Dickens, published in 1842. Dickens visited the U.S. (Jan.–May 1842) in a tour that took him from Boston and New York to Canada and as far west as St. Louis. His book is ...

Shari‘a and Basic Human Rights Concerns

Shari‘a and Basic Human Rights Concerns   Reference library

‘Abdullahi Ahmed An-Na‘im

Liberal Islam: A Sourcebook

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
12,922 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

... In the following remarks, I am assuming, for the sake of argument, that Rushdie's book is extremely offensive to Muslims. I am also assuming that freedom of expression is not absolute. It is conceivable that a published work, whether claiming to be a work of fiction or scholarship, can cause such harm to some identifiable private or public interest as to justify the banning or restriction of its circulation. Although I believe that it should be extremely difficult to make a convincing case for banning a work, I am assuming that it is not impossible...

The Wisdom of Solomon

The Wisdom of Solomon   Reference library

William Horbury and William Horbury

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
21,675 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...Judea and probably including Judean refugees, seems the likeliest cradle for the Greek text of the whole book, perhaps between 100 and 50 bce ; these dates are speculative, but they would suit the points of contact with both Sirach and the Psalms of Solomon noted above. Sirach was put into Greek probably in 132 bce , with what seems (especially but not only in the longer form of the Greek text) a fresh recognition of reward and punishment hereafter, specifically for circulation among Egyptian Jews. Their Greek epitaphs attest a difference of opinion on...

insanity

insanity  

Another name for mental disorder, especially in legal contexts, where it refers specifically to conditions that impair one's ability to discharge one's legal responsibilities. See also McNaghten ...
Bible Societies

Bible Societies   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Bible

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Religion
Length:
1,544 words

...people, which became the most widely used translation in the western church for a thousand years, the Vulgate . Although there were some attempts in medieval scriptoria to mass‐produce copies of the Bible, the process was slow, and the handwritten copies issued were enormously expensive. With the invention of movable type for printing (about 1456 ), the situation changed, and the Bible began to be translated into vernacular languages and commercially produced for general circulation. It was, however, not until the evangelical revival in the eighteenth...

World Faith and Order Conferences

World Faith and Order Conferences   Reference library

David Thompson

The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
1,942 words

...circulation. The outstanding topic, that of ‘The Church’ was then the main focus of attention for the Faith and Order Commission, the aim being to draft a document that was not too traditionally ecclesiastical but did not engage so deeply with contemporary secular issues, that the divine basis for the Church was forgotten. One thing has become apparent in the period since 1993: there is a much closer dialogue between the tasks of Faith and Order, and corresponding concerns within the WCC. Another development since the 1960s is worth noting here. After...

Dead Sea Scrolls

Dead Sea Scrolls   Reference library

Ken M. Penner

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Books of the Bible

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Religion
Length:
12,815 words
Illustration(s):
4

...are absent, but other Daniel stories (e.g., the prayer of Nabonidus) were found. Of course, the biblical books are frequently cited as authorities, often with citation formulae (e.g., “God said,” “it/he said,” “Moses said,” God said “by the hand of the prophet Ezekiel,” “as it is written in the book of.…”), but Jubilees and the Apocryphon of Levi were also quoted with a citation formula in the Damascus Document . The Damascus Document also names the “Book of Hagu” (meditation?) as a proper object of study, but this may actually refer to the Pentateuch....

Translations

Translations   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Bible

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Religion
Length:
21,966 words

...African Languages Asiatic Languages Australian Aboriginal Languages Native American Languages The first article deals with general theories and problems of translation. The second article discusses all ancient versions, except for the Targums, which are the subject of the third article. the remaining articles survey medieval versions and translations into other languages, first English, then groups of languages ordered by continent. Related discussion is found in Circulation of the Bible ; Paraphrases ; Polyglot Bibles ; Septuagint ; Vulgate ; and ...

The Globalization of Islam: The Return of Muslims to the West

The Globalization of Islam: The Return of Muslims to the West   Reference library

Yvonne Yazbeck Haddad

The Oxford History of Islam

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
23,324 words
Illustration(s):
12

...too many unmeltables. In the 1950s Will Herberg promoted the idea of an America with equal religious conglomerates: Protestant, Catholic, and Jewish. There are currently two paradigms that are competing for adoption; both are controversial, and both have their devoted advocates and detractors. The first is promoted by Christian fundamentalists, some in the Jewish community, and a large number of politicians. It identifies America as grounded in Judeo-Christian values. Its critics note that besides on the idea of separation of religion and state, this...

Apocrypha

Apocrypha   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Bible

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Religion
Length:
3,800 words

...twenty‐seven books collected in the New Testament canon, many other examples were produced of each of the four types of New Testament literature: gospels, acts, letters, and apocalypses. The intentions of the authors of these books, which are now known as New Testament Apocrypha, were diverse; some sought to supplement works already in circulation, while others sought to supplant them. In some cases, these books simply served as light entertainment for Christian believers; in others, the authors wanted to promulgate practices and ideas condemned by the...

Apocrypha

Apocrypha   Reference library

John C. Endres and J. K. Elliott

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Books of the Bible

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Religion
Length:
9,136 words
Illustration(s):
1

...at the apex of Western Christian opinion on the Apocrypha. Jerome considered the Hebrew text superior to the Greek, noting differences between the Hebrew and Greek texts and canons. He distinguished between “canonical” books, which were extant in Hebrew and useful for doctrine, and “ecclesiastical” books, which could be read in churches, especially for edification. On the other hand, Augustine advocated the LXX as the inspired collection for church use. He knew that some Eastern churches used the additional books in the LXX and likely sought to share this...

Khurshid Ahmad: Muslim Activist-Economist

Khurshid Ahmad: Muslim Activist-Economist   Reference library

John L. Esposito and John O. Voll

Makers of Contemporary Islam

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
6,922 words

...and Africa, lecturing at universities and to Muslim organizations in Europe, America, and Africa, and initiating and participating in international ecumenical dialogues. The breadth and diversity of his activities are reflected in the offices he held during that time, among them director general of the Islamic Foundation in Leicester, England, member of the advisory council of the Centre for the Study of Islam Christian-Muslim Relations, and vice-president of the Standing...

Matthew, Gospel According to

Matthew, Gospel According to   Reference library

Anders Runesson

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Books of the Bible

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Religion
Length:
13,029 words
Illustration(s):
3

...order Matt, John, Luke, Mark, Acts). A more likely explanation for these unusual book titles is simply that they were added as soon as the Gospels began to be circulated beyond the place where they were produced in order to distinguish one gospel from another (cf. Hengel 2000 ) . This solution brings us back to the late first century. Indeed, since Matthew as well as Luke used Mark's Gospel when they wrote their narratives, and Matthew's Gospel indicates intention of immediate global circulation ( Matt 28:19–20 ), the titles of the Gospels, although not...

Canon

Canon   Reference library

C. A. Evans, Rebecca S. Hancock, Stephen B. Chapman, and Stanley E. Porter

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Books of the Bible

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Religion
Length:
24,390 words
Illustration(s):
1

...theologian Rufinus writing in the late fourth century ( On the Creed 37–38 ) includes four gospels, Acts, fourteen letters of Paul, two of Peter, one of James, one of Jude, three of John, and Revelation, in other words the canonical New Testament. He also notes books that are useful for the church but not canonical ( Shepherd of Hermas , the Two Ways , and the Judgment of Peter ). Jerome, writing in 394 c.e ., lists the New Testament books as including the four gospels; seven letters to churches by Paul (with Hebrews as falling outside this group);...

Jeremiah

Jeremiah   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Books of the Bible

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Religion
Length:
12,922 words
Illustration(s):
2

... and 1956 at Qumran. Some textual variants in Jeremiah may be related to translation issues, but other differences seem to indicate that differing editions of parts of the book of Jeremiah were in circulation before the Common Era. Yet other variations were generated by late expansions of the Hebrew text tradition with particular theopolitical goals in mind. For one of many possible examples: the phrase “Nebuchadrezzar, king of Babylon, my servant” is present in 25:9 in the Hebrew tradition but absent from the LXX; similarly 27:6 and 43:10 , although the...

Cultural Anthropology

Cultural Anthropology   Reference library

T. M. Lemos and Dietmar Neufeld

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Biblical Interpretation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion
Length:
11,169 words

...and lived experiences on the biblical texts without regard for their original social and cultural context. A brief example of this tendency will illustrate the point. Mark 2:1–12 records the story of a paralytic being transported on a mattress by four carriers to Jesus’s home. Unable to enter the house because of the large crowd gathered around it, they clambered up on the roof, scooped a hole in it, and lowered the man on the mattress to Jesus presumably to seek his healing. Noting the loyalty and persistence of the carriers, Jesus announced that...

Pseudepigrapha

Pseudepigrapha   Reference library

David A. deSilva

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Books of the Bible

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Religion
Length:
11,837 words

...manuscripts, and to work backward from there only as the evidence of the text necessitates. He puts the burden of proof on those who would argue for a Jewish origin, especially an origin in the pre-Christian era. James Davila has added to this discussion by formulating a number of criteria for determining whether or not a pseudepigraphon originated in Jewish circles. Beyond general “Jewish” content, he looks for some combination of the following: (1) strong internal evidence that the text was written in the pre-Christian era; (2) compelling evidence that the...

Gurdjieff, Georges Ivanovitch

Gurdjieff, Georges Ivanovitch (1866?–1949)   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences
Length:
1,870 words

...the action of time through “the exchange of substances or the Reciprocal-feeding of everything that exists” ( 1950 : 136–7). For Gurdjieff, everything is “eating” something lower and “feeding” something higher in the circulation of an open living system. Moreover, only in a certain class of beings, humans among them, can the necessary “transmutation of cosmic substances” ( 1950 : 140) take place. This effort not only will “pay for their arising” ( 1950 : 386) but also allows them to absorb some of these substances themselves to create “higher-being-bodies”...

De civitate Dei

De civitate Dei   Reference library

Michael C. Sloan

The Oxford Guide to the Historical Reception of Augustine

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion
Length:
6,280 words

... b. Premodern reception From the time of its original circulation as individual books to its eventual circulation as a complete ms., civ . was received pervasively in the premodern period. Although individual studies may indicate otherwise, the general pattern is that civ . was studied and atomistically. Hence, reception studies of this period reveal parallel patterns of thought over ...

Wisdom

Wisdom   Reference library

Hikmet Yaman

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Science, and Technology in Islam

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Science and technology
Length:
5,757 words

...wealth, family, or social standing. Rather, God gives ḥikmah to His distinguished servants, like Luqmān. In order to receive ḥikmah , a person must prepare himself for it through the obligatory and supererogatory acts of worship indispensable to a decent spiritual life. Even then, as a gift from God, there is no guarantee that one will be granted ḥikmah at the end of these efforts. Ṣūfīs note, however, that while one’s personal strivings cannot guarantee that one will receive ḥikmah , those who have received it have in all cases followed such meticulous...

De bono viduitatis

De bono viduitatis   Reference library

Philip L. Reynolds

The Oxford Guide to the Historical Reception of Augustine

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion
Length:
3,250 words

...on consecrated widows, the collector was concerned with the canon law of widowhood. In fact, canonists used these texts, along with others that clearly referred to monks or nuns, to deal with general questions about religious vows, especially as impediments to marriage: see, for example, the use of the decree Gelasius and the sixteenth canon from the tenth Council of Toledo (both on widows) in the second recension of Gratian's Decretum , C. 20, q. 1, cap. 16 ( 847 ) and...

View: