Update
The Oxford Biblical Studies Online and Oxford Islamic Studies Online have retired. Content you previously purchased on Oxford Biblical Studies Online or Oxford Islamic Studies Online has now moved to Oxford Reference, Oxford Handbooks Online, Oxford Scholarship Online, or What Everyone Needs to Know®. For information on how to continue to view articles visit the subscriber services page.
Dismiss

You are looking at 1-18 of 18 entries  for:

  • All: American Notes for General Circulation x
clear all

View:

Overview

American Notes for General Circulation

Travel account by Dickens, published in 1842. Dickens visited the U.S. (Jan.–May 1842) in a tour that took him from Boston and New York to Canada and as far west as St. Louis. His book is ...

insanity

insanity  

Another name for mental disorder, especially in legal contexts, where it refers specifically to conditions that impair one's ability to discharge one's legal responsibilities. See also McNaghten ...
Fingering

Fingering   Reference library

Mark Lindley, Glyn Jenkins, Mark Lindley, Sonya Monosoff, Alison Crum, Peter Walls, SONYA MONOSOFF/PETER WALLS (II, 2(ii)), Suzanne Wijsman, Rodney Slatford, Marc Ecochard, Bruce Haynes, and Arnold Myers

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
21,546 words
Illustration(s):
83

...virtuoso works such as Vivaldi’s Four Seasons with fingerings added. Corrette stressed in his preface to the latter volume the importance of ‘being conversant with all the positions of four strings, having facility in shifting, and playing cleanly and distinctly’. Leopold Mozart gave recommendations for planning shifts in the most manageable and musically discrete ways. Downward shifts, for example, could be smoothly executed by waiting for a note which could be played as an open string, or for a repeated note, or for a dotted group where the slight lift...

Orchestra

Orchestra   Reference library

John Spitzer and Neal Zaslaw

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
11,860 words

...including flutes, clarinets, trumpets, and drums, had become indispensable. Thus Haydn, Mozart, and Beethoven composed for an orchestra of strings, plus pairs of flutes, oboes, clarinets, bassoons, horns, trumpets, and timpani. This may be called the ‘high-Classical’ orchestra. The configuration is found as a general practice, however, only from the 1790s: of Haydn’s more than 100 symphonies, only four (nos.99, 100, 103, 104) call for those forces, as do only two (the Paris and the Haffner) of Mozart’s more than 50. Beethoven and such contemporaries as...

symphony, the

symphony, the   Reference library

Denis Arnold, Stanley Sadie, Denis Arnold, Anthony Pople, Denis Arnold, Alison Latham, Anthony Pople, and Anthony Pople

The Oxford Companion to Music

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Music
Length:
9,077 words

... were among the first to codify the four-movement symphony (though the later generation reverted to three-movement form), and they introduced many striking orchestral effects: not only the crescendo but also the ‘rocket’ (which scarcely needs description) and the sustained tutti in which the violins played tremolos while thematic figures are played in the bass. These and other effects were easy to develop among the virtuoso group—the ‘army of generals’ (Burney)—gathered by Johann Stamitz soon after 1740 : the generals included Stamitz's sons, Fils , ...

Lane, William Henry

Lane, William Henry (1825)   Reference library

Sandra Jean Graham

The Grove Dictionary of American Music (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Music, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
343 words

... ( b United States , c 1825 ; d United Kingdom , c 1852 ). Minstrel . Circa 1841 , Lane began dancing publicly in saloons and dance halls in lower Manhattan's impoverished Five Points district. He was likely the dancer that Charles Dickens described in American Notes for General Circulation ( 1842 ). In 1844–5 , the preeminent white minstrel jig dancer John Diamond ( 1823–57 ) challenged Lane to a series of contest dances, which Lane won decisively. In 1845 , Lane made history with the Georgia Champion Minstrels as the first black member of a...

Psalmody

Psalmody   Reference library

Richard Crawford and Laurie J. Sampsel

The Grove Dictionary of American Music (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Music, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
6,444 words
Illustration(s):
11

...School of composers and of the American styles they developed. The success of the reform movement in the cities of the Atlantic seaboard and New England marked the end, by 1820 , of the indigenous New England compositional style as a creative force. It did not, however, end the circulation of its repertory. New England tunes survived in collections published in upstate New York, western Pennsylvania, Ohio, and the Shenandoah Valley of Virginia, as well as in the shape-note collections published farther south ( see Shape-note hymnody ). In these outlying...

Abolition

Abolition   Reference library

Sandra Jean Graham

The Grove Dictionary of American Music (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Music, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,414 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Masur : “‘A Rare Phenomenon of Philological Vegetation’: the Word ‘Contraband’ and the Meanings of Emancipation in the United States,” Journal of American History , xciii/4 (2007), 1050–84 M.C. Cohen : “Contraband Singing: Poems and Songs in Circulation during the Civil War,” American Literature , lxxxii (2010), 271–304 Sandra Jean...

Arab American music

Arab American music   Reference library

Kenneth S. Habib

The Grove Dictionary of American Music (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Music, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
6,176 words
Illustration(s):
4

...and other periodicals also quickly were established, such as Kawkab Amērikā (The Star of America), the newspaper that began weekly publication in New York in 1892 , and by the time it became a daily in 1898 , had a circulation of perhaps 10,000 in the United States, of some 5000 in Latin American countries, and among Arabic speakers who had not emigrated as well. These clubs, associations, and publications factored formatively in the lives of Arab Americans and, in turn, also influenced Arab society through personal, cultural, and professional ties....

Gershwin, George

Gershwin, George (26 Sept 1898)   Reference library

Richard Crawford and Wayne J. Schneider

The Grove Dictionary of American Music (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Music, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
13,375 words
Illustration(s):
7

...Symbol,” Yearbook for Inter-American Musical Research , viii (1972), 17–38 A. Wilder : “George Gershwin (1898–1937),” American Popular Song (New York, 1972), 121–62 W.D. Shirley : “Porgy and Bess,” Library of Congress Quarterly Journal , xxxi (1974), 97–107 E. Jablonski : “Gershwin at 80: Observations, Discographical and Otherwise, on the 80th Anniversary of the Birth of George Gershwin, American Composer,” American Record Guide , xli (1977–8), no.11, pp. 6–12, 58 only; no. 12, pp. 8–12, 57–9 R. Crawford : “Gershwin's Reputation: a Note on Porgy and Bess,”...

Theory.

Theory.   Reference library

David Carson Berry, Sherman Van Solkema, David Carson Berry, and David Carson Berry

The Grove Dictionary of American Music (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Music, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
10,188 words

...semitones. Thus there was a four-note “1–2–1” harmony, a five-note “1–3–2–4” harmony, etc. Bacon accurately tabulated all 350 transpositionally equivalent chord types, ranging from two to 12 members. As a greater variety of chord types was accepted, a means for regulating their progression became a concern. Ernst Krenek addressed this topic in Studies in Counterpoint ( 1940 ). In the section on three-part writing, he classified intervals broadly, as consonances, mild dissonances, or sharp dissonances; an assortment of three-note chords was then divided into...

Women in music

Women in music   Reference library

Judith Tick and Judy Tsou

The Grove Dictionary of American Music (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Music, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
10,342 words
Illustration(s):
2

...conductors at major houses, the increase in the number of commissions and awards, better representation in the leading orchestras, and so on—have more to do with the status of women in American society in general than with developments in American musical life. The Civil Rights Act of 1964 and affirmative-action programs set standards for evaluation that sensitized American society to the problems of race and sex discrimination. The threatened withdrawal of federal funds and the possibility of litigation further supported equality of opportunity. The...

Cincinnati

Cincinnati   Reference library

bruce d. mcclung

The Grove Dictionary of American Music (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Music, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
5,309 words
Illustration(s):
1

...& Douglass, a music instrument dealer, issued “General Harrison's Grand March,” a hand-engraved piano piece. Cincinnati's music business would grow to over one hundred sheet music publishers between 1840 and 1920 . Demographically, Cincinnati began to change. During the frontier period, most settlers were native-born Americans of English or Scottish ancestry. Beginning in 1830 , most new arrivals were from Germany. That year Germans constituted 5% of Cincinnati's populace, but by 1840 they accounted for 30%. The largely Catholic German community settled...

Romania

Romania   Reference library

Vivia Săndulescu

The International Encyclopedia of Dance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Performing arts, Dance, Music
Length:
7,745 words

...folk festivals have encouraged the circulation of dances. The modern media enhance people's receptivity to new forms. Musicians frequently travel, facilitating the circulation of tunes and dances. The range of the repertory varies with each region, reaching thirty-five to fifty variants in some villages in Wallachia, Oltenia, the Banat, and Moldavia, and being limited to three to five variants in some in Transylvania. Quality, however, is not determined by quantity; the small number of dances in Transylvania is compensated for by intricate technique and rich...

Foster, Stephen C(ollins)

Foster, Stephen C(ollins) (4 July 1826)   Reference library

Deane L. Root

The Grove Dictionary of American Music (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Music, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
7,576 words

...the United States abandoned his songs. A rise in the study of American music and worldwide interest in Americana since the 1980s, however, has brought new scholarly research into the songs’ history of interpretations and significance, accompanied by continued circulation among American country, folk-music, and popular performers and persisting use as iconic melodies for films, television shows, and electronic devices. In the 1850s Foster's songs were the first significant body of identifiably American song; in the early twenty-first century, a handful of...

European American music

European American music   Reference library

Philip V. Bohlman, Stephen Erdely, Leon Janikian, Christina Jaremko, Ain Haas, Chris Goertzen, D.K. Wilgus, Mark Levy, Philip V. Bohlman, Robert C. Metil, Jesse A. Johnston, Julien Olivier, Stephen D. Winick, Bill C. Malone, Barry Jean Ancelet, Stephen d. Winick, Philip V. Bohlman, Michael G. Kaloyanides, Stephen Erdely, Lynn M. Hooker, Mick Moloney, Stephen D. Winick, Marcello Sorce Keller, Janice E. Kleeman, Timothy J. Cooley, Katherine Brucher, Carol Silverman, Kenneth A. Thigpen, Margaret H. Beissinger, Margarita Mazo, Chris Goertzen, Mark Forry, Janet Sturman, Philip V. Bohlman, Marcello Sorce Keller, Robert B. Klymasz, and Denis Hlynka

The Grove Dictionary of American Music (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Music, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
33,627 words
Illustration(s):
6

...y vuelta,” Spanish for roundtrip. Other adaptations resulted from the circulation of people and practices within the Americas. Spanish explorers and missionaries who settled the Americas in the 16th century brought styles, forms, and customs that continue to influence practice today. Music for Catholic service and feast days, misas (masses), maitines, motetes, gozos (couplets in honor of the virgin), villancicos (sacred song with vernacular text), alabados (prayerful songs of procession), were often augmented by instrumental music for orchestra or...

Hawaii

Hawaii   Reference library

Amy Ku‘uleialoha Stillman

The Grove Dictionary of American Music (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Music, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
4,289 words

...to the United States in 1898 , and statehood in 1959 . By the late 1880s, Hawai‘i was already developing as a tourist destination; and tourism promotion was augmented by the circulation of exoticist stereotypes. Contemporary Hawai’i sustains a multicultural mélange of peoples and lifeways, and a history of over two centuries of global interaction. (Note: Hawaiian-language spellings, including the name Hawai‘i, follow official State of Hawai‘i usage.) All of these factors inform any consideration of Hawaiian music in the 21st century. The indigenous...

Latino music.

Latino music.   Reference library

Michael Birenbaum Quintero, Jason Stanyek, Melissa Gonzalez, Jorge Arevalo MATEUS, Mario Rey, Sydney Hutchinson, Lois Wilcken, Roberto Avant-Mier, John Koegel, and Edgardo Díaz Díaz

The Grove Dictionary of American Music (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Music, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
14,076 words
Illustration(s):
2

...widespread political upheaval, economic unrest, and recurring natural disasters during the last four decades have prompted unprecedented migratory upsurges from Central America. A popular trend among Central American migrants, especially those living in the Southwest, is the reappropriation of musical genres typically associated with Mexico and other Latin American countries. Starting in the 1980s, technobanda became popular in both Mexican and Central American immigrant communities throughout the southwestern United States and California. Los Jornaleros del...

Globalization

Globalization   Reference library

Jayson Beaster-Jones

The Grove Dictionary of American Music (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Music, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
3,045 words

...enabled global modes of distributing pre-recorded and copyrighted music by way of File sharing . Music companies all over the world have argued that music Piracy has largely reduced the market for music because songs have become far too easy for audiences to download without paying for them. Whether labeled “piracy” or “sharing,” unauthorized music circulation has become very easy with compressed digital file formats, which has reduced the revenues of the global music industry. Copyright laws in different parts of the world have been unevenly enforced...

View: