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American Notes for General Circulation

Travel account by Dickens, published in 1842. Dickens visited the U.S. (Jan.–May 1842) in a tour that took him from Boston and New York to Canada and as far west as St. Louis. His book is ...

insanity

insanity  

Another name for mental disorder, especially in legal contexts, where it refers specifically to conditions that impair one's ability to discharge one's legal responsibilities. See also McNaghten ...
Text

Text   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
8,172 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Powell ( 1834–1902 ) and Franz Boas ( 1858–1942 ). Powell, as founding director of the Bureau of American Ethnology ( 1879 ), attached prime importance to linguistic research. The Bureau's ethnographic program for the study of Amerindian cultures made standard its tripartite foundation of grammars, dictionaries, and texts, as well as the format for rendering texts in print: the native-language text with interlinear literal translation, followed by notes on problematic linguistic and cultural features of the text, and occasionally by a free translation....

African-American rhetoric

African-American rhetoric   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Rhetoric

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
9,882 words

...American discourse and thought have always been inextricably linked to the conflicts and contradictions that have historically circumscribed black experience: in short, how black rhetoric has always embodied both the essential and the existential. Although the idea of double-consciousness is, as Reed notes, mentioned only once in Souls , the idea has had an important impact on contemporary black thought in general, and the areas of rhetorical theory and criticism in particular. For Reed, double-consciousness reveals the racial anxiety of African-American...

Nineteenth-Century rhetoric

Nineteenth-Century rhetoric   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Rhetoric

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
6,780 words

...a treatise that, like Campbell's and Blair's treatises, enjoyed wide circulation and imitation in America in the first half of the nineteenth century. Whately's use of the term energy , for that quality of style that engages the imagination and fixes the audience's attention, proved more popular in nineteenth-century theories of style than Campbell's term vivacity for the same epistemological effect. Whately's triad of perspicuity, energy, and elegance was widely adopted as a framework for discussing style, although nineteenth-century theorists tended to...

Feminist rhetoric

Feminist rhetoric   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Rhetoric

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
5,632 words

...Woman in 1993 . In Backlash: The Undeclared War Against American Women (New York, 1991 ), Susan Faludi argued that the practices of the news and entertainment media worked against the efforts of feminists. In Feminism and Its Fictions: The Consciousness-Raising Novel and the Women's Liberation Movement (Philadelphia, 1998 ), however, Lisa Hogeland argued that the women's and feminist fiction of the 1970s was dominated by the consciousness-raising novel, which enabled a wider circulation of ideas related to the women's liberation movement. In ...

Eighteenth-century rhetoric

Eighteenth-century rhetoric   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Rhetoric

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
7,184 words

...would not have had been able to purchase books or read cosmopolitan periodicals. In the eighteenth century, print became more than a technology for reproducing texts, it became an economy for the circulation of knowledge. That economy transformed public institutions ranging from provincial colleges to the British post office, which began mailing newspapers free of charge to the provinces in 1787 , with some four-and-half million being shipped annually from London by 1790 . Just as authorship was expanding to new classes of people, belletrists subordinated...

Audience

Audience   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Rhetoric

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
11,691 words

...but rather than examine whether a speech fits an audience, he assesses speeches to discover what audience is implied in the discourse. He notes that the ideology of the audience will appear in the language of a text and that the representation of this implied audience can and should be morally judged from a rhetorical perspective. Phillip Wander ( 1984 ), also searches for audiences in texts, specifically for those that are negated, alienated through language, negated in history, negated in silence. Wander suggests that groups that are historically...

Renaissance rhetoric

Renaissance rhetoric   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Rhetoric

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
15,239 words

...appreciation of their stylistic merits and admiration for their author. They were used for the teaching of Latin in secondary schools in an edition with a commentary by the Strasbourg humanist Johannes Sturm ( 1507–1589 ). The new manuals of letter writing, which replaced the medieval artes dictaminis , often had an additional section on the personal letter ( epistola familiaris ). This kind of letter became a fashionable means of communication among Humanists who used it for the exchange and circulation of ideas in the respublica literaria; but there was...

Lacan, Jacques

Lacan, Jacques (1901–1981)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Semiotics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
3,413 words

...such as hunger, while really being a more general plea for love. Thus, demand can function metonymically or metaphorically; it can find as many signifiers as it likes to translate its wishes. The new signifier displaces or abolishes what is really being asked for, as thirty sails abolishes ship . Bodily needs can be deferred endlessly as demand keeps translating them into noncorporeal signifiers. But the particularity of need stages a return by borrowing the structure contained in the unconditional demand for love, and the result is desire....

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