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American Notes for General Circulation

Travel account by Dickens, published in 1842. Dickens visited the U.S. (Jan.–May 1842) in a tour that took him from Boston and New York to Canada and as far west as St. Louis. His book is ...

Kent

Kent  

One of the kingdoms of Anglo-Saxon England, probably covering much the same area as the modern county of Kent in SE England. (See also Garden of England at garden.)Man of Kent a native or inhabitant ...
public health

public health  

The health or physical well‐being of a whole community.
currency

currency   Reference library

Emily Gilbert

The Oxford Companion to Canadian History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
904 words

...British American Bank Note Company in Montreal in 1866 . It made nationalistic appeals for the domestic production of money, echoed in 1908 when the Royal Mint opened a branch in Canada. Further centralization and consolidation came with the formation of the Bank of Canada in 1935 , which became solely responsible for the issue of paper currencies. Until that time, bank notes still comprised a significant part of the currency. In 1935 banks were ordered to reduce their notes in circulation, and in 1944 they were prohibited from issuing bank notes. Only...

economy, tertiary sector

economy, tertiary sector   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Scottish History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
2,548 words

...of these was the Ayr Bank, founded in 1769 , which was backed by two dukes, two earls, and many prominent landowners of the south‐west. It aimed to replace the note circulation of all other banks with its own, and therefore provided very widespread credit particularly to landowners. It closed its doors through over‐trading in 1772 with liabilities of £1.2 m (£70 m at 2000 figures). A general banking collapse was only just avoided, but most of the shareholders went bankrupt, one of whom, the duke of Buccleuch, was still paying off his portion of the debt...

Journalism, Broadcast

Journalism, Broadcast   Reference library

Black Women in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
5,327 words
Illustration(s):
2

...and behind the camera. Paula Madison , the president and general manager of KNBC, the number-two market in the country, was among an elite group of black women at or near the top of major broadcasting stations around the country. With more than four hundred employees and a reach of 16 million viewers, Madison was, in 2003 , one of the most powerful African Americans or women in television. When she was named to the position in November 2000 , she was the first African American woman to become general manager at a network-owned station in a top-five market....

Dance

Dance   Reference library

Encyclopedia of African American History, 1619–1895: From the Colonial Period to the Age of Frederick Douglass

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
3,464 words
Illustration(s):
4

...would fill with both black and white Americans dancing the fox trot, the Charleston, and the black bottom. It would take another century, however, before the significance of these dance forms and their origins would be recognized. See also Minstrel Shows ; Music ; Racism ; Stereotypes of African Americans ; and Women . Bibliography DeFrantz, Thomas F. , ed. Dancing Many Drums: Excavations in African American Dance . Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 2002. Dickens, Charles . American Notes for General Circulation . New York: Harper and Brothers,...

Universal Negro Improvement Association

Universal Negro Improvement Association   Reference library

Encyclopedia of African American History 1896 to the Present

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,952 words
Illustration(s):
1

...with numerous disappointments, Garvey's organization took root. African Americans took note when Garvey, in a talk given in Pittsburgh, introduced his idea for a fleet of black owned steamships that would travel to Africa. Though Garvey envisioned the fleet as a means to coordinate black commercial enterprise, his listeners spread word of Garvey and a back to Africa movement. The creation of The Negro World , the UNIA's official newspaper from 1918 to 1933 , which garnered a circulation that peaked at two hundred thousand, further facilitated the goals of...

Delany, Martin Robison

Delany, Martin Robison (b. 6 May 1812)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of African American History, 1619–1895: From the Colonial Period to the Age of Frederick Douglass

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,616 words
Illustration(s):
1

...book, but by that time he cared little for the concerns of white America as they pertained to ending slavery. He clearly and openly advocated separatism as a means to escape oppression. Despite his disregard for white approval, Delany did hope for a favorable endorsement from his friend Douglass. The sought-after endorsement never materialized, however. Douglass disagreed with Delany's emigrationist ideas. But he refused to review Delany's book or even simply to note the book's circulation in his newspaper mainly for fear of jeopardizing the financial support...

Garrisonian Abolitionists

Garrisonian Abolitionists   Reference library

Encyclopedia of African American History, 1619–1895: From the Colonial Period to the Age of Frederick Douglass

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
2,175 words

...various constitutional clauses unequivocally recognized and guaranteed slavery, despite the term's notorious absence. To buttress that stance, Garrisonians enlisted the 1840 publication of James Madison 's notes on the debates of the 1787 Philadelphia Convention, which revealed that slavery figured prominently in the Constitution's drafting. Four clauses, in particular, provoked Garrisonian abolitionists' vituperation and ire: the three-fifths clause, because it incorporated a considerable portion of the South's enslaved population (60 percent) into the...

Historical journals

Historical journals   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Australian History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,512 words

... Stuart Macintyre suggests that after struggling for its first decade, HSANZ prospered in the 1950s, when its circulation rose to 1000, with the rapid growth of university and school history. This environment fostered new regional journals and a growing range of specialist journals catering to the interests of historians working in the branches of the discipline. The Journal of Pacific History and the New Zealand Journal of History began in 1966 and 1967 . The latter event brought a change of title for HSANZ ; it became Historical Studies , and...

Journalism, Early

Journalism, Early   Reference library

Black Women in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
6,350 words
Illustration(s):
2

...news.” After the Civil War In 1891 , Irving Garland Penn , a twenty-four-year-old freeborn African American, compiled a seminal work titled The Afro-American Press and Its Editors that outlined the beginnings of the black press. While Penn apologized profusely for not being able to include every black newspaper and every journalist in the compendium, he did include women. The second, and longest, part of Penn’s book gives short profiles and portraits of the leading African American journalists, both male and female, of that period. Of the 140 portraits,...

Poetry

Poetry   Reference library

Black Women in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
11,676 words
Illustration(s):
1

...African American women published anonymously or under a pen name. For example, anti-slavery poems by “Ada” appeared regularly in William Lloyd Garrison ’s abolitionist newspaper, The Liberator , between 1836 and 1855 . Later revealed to be a woman named Sarah Louisa Forten , “Ada” was known only as “a young and intelligent lady of color” and was reportedly from Philadelphia. Little else is known of her. Learning much more about such writers isfurther complicated by the fact that these women published in periodicals with very small circulations—religious...

Race, Theories Of

Race, Theories Of   Reference library

Encyclopedia of African American History 1896 to the Present

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
6,711 words

...in Africa and Asia. Du Bois's position as an African American, together with his emerging international role in debating the race question, underscored not simply the importance and specificity of race in U.S. history, but the fact that American efforts to deal with the question of race in the twentieth century would become increasingly central to the global political landscape. Historians have tended to view the specificity and centrality of the race question in the United States as deriving from four key factors: (1) the history of the United States as an...

Nahua

Nahua   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Mesoamerican Cultures

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
3,754 words

...). Also still in circulation are oral narratives that describe the folk hero/deity Nanahuatl/Quetzalcoatl obtaining maize from Sustenance Mountain. A very playful version of Nanahuatl teaching planting knowledge of maize to his disobedient and disrespectful lightning-bolt sons also circulates among narrators in the northern Sierra de Puebla. Regardless of origin, many contemporary oral narratives recounted in Nahua languages from various parts of Mexico express a connected cosmovision similar, but not identical to, that reported for the sixteenth-century...

Graffiti

Graffiti   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in the United States

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
2,979 words

...programs to contract graffiti artists for public art projects such as Lady Pink's 2002 graffiti mural “Tribute to 911.” Graffiti crews developed a hierarchy between novices (“toys”) and experts (“masters”). This hierarchy facilitated a system of mentorship, and established a system of recognition for artists without formal training. This hierarchy of artists, based on prior fame and on consensus regarding a writer's talent, determines the circulation of graffiti (either by an individual or by a crew) in public space. For example, larger spaces and surfaces...

Economic Organization and Development

Economic Organization and Development   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Mesoamerican Cultures

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
4,727 words

...function of the state as providing for society in general, but also as an organ for government and for the appropriation of surpluses for the ruling class. The economy of ancient Central Mexico was integrated by a political system that controlled the organization of production by its regulation of land and labor. The surplus, in the form of tribute, went to the governing class. The market mechanism was more important than in other controlled economies, such as that of the Inca, but was restricted to the circulation and distribution of consumer goods. [ See...

religious life

religious life   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Scottish History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
11,376 words

...that at Kilsyth in 1839 , in which whole communities were seized with concern for the welfare of their souls. Tracts, such as those issued by Peter Drummond at Stirling from 1848 onwards, helped promote the movement, as did the circulation of bibles. In 1859–60 parts of the country, especially where fishermen lived, were gripped by revival, and during the following decade popular Evangelicalism put down fresh roots, as among the miners of Lanarkshire. The visiting American Evangelist Dwight L. Moody and his singing colleague Ira D. Sankey stirred...

culture

culture   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Scottish History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
37,999 words

...) and using a European art style for prestigious jewellery and feasting equipment. The wheel had been in use throughout the first millennium bc . Most of Scotland was little affected by the Roman military presence in the 1st–3rd centuries ad , although Roman goods were widespread through trade, loot, or gifts. Supplying food to the Roman army may account for the large underground storehouses (souterrains) of Angus and Perthshire in the 1st and 2nd centuries. Large quantities oflate Roman silver were in circulation either as political bribes or as loot,...

Magazines

Magazines   Reference library

Ellen Gruber Garvey

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Cultural and Intellectual History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...as African Americans were financially precarious because they competed with the far better capitalized mass-circulation magazines for both readers and advertisers, and national advertisers largely refused to see African Americans as consumers. Nationally distributed newspapers such as the Chicago Defender and Pittsburgh Courier long served as the national publications for African Americans, and the longest lived African American magazines were those sponsored by organizations, such as Crisis ( 1910–1996 ), issued by the National Association for the...

Manners

Manners   Reference library

Stephen Mennell

The Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of the American Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...found at court. But it is important to note that even when newer books were written, they did not quickly displace from circulation older books presenting older standards. Translated into many languages, manners books from previous centuries such as Castiglione’s Il Cortigiano (originally 1528 ), Erasmus’s De civilitate morum puerilium ( 1530 ), Della Casa’s Galateo ( 1558 ) and many imitations and derivatives, continued to circulate in seventeenth and eighteenth-century Europe. And in America. John Winthrop the Younger ( 1606–76 ), Governor...

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