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American Notes for General Circulation

Travel account by Dickens, published in 1842. Dickens visited the U.S. (Jan.–May 1842) in a tour that took him from Boston and New York to Canada and as far west as St. Louis. His book is ...

46 The History of the Book in Latin America (including Incas, Aztecs, and the Caribbean)

46 The History of the Book in Latin America (including Incas, Aztecs, and the Caribbean)   Reference library

Eugenia Roldán Vera

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,881 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

...Uruguay, and Venezuela. CERLALC’s aim was and is to promote the production, circulation, distribution, and reading of books in Latin America. Its design incorporates legal frameworks for free trade in books; it encourages regional governments to sign international conventions concerning copyright and against *piracy ; it initiates reading campaigns and training for professionals in the book industry. CERLALC also monitors aspects of book production and circulation in most Latin American countries, about which it publishes quantitative material and qualitative...

47 The History of the Book in Canada

47 The History of the Book in Canada   Reference library

Patricia Lockhart Fleming

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
5,134 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...to subscribers who signed up for a religious or topical volume. For everyday reading, almanacs—particularly Quebec’s literary and historical series—remained popular. The circulation of daily and weekly newspapers exceeded 1 million copies before the end of the 19 th century; and despite an abundance of imported titles, domestic publishers supplied religious and agricultural serials as well as illustrated magazines. The postal rate, reduced to a penny per pound by the end of the century, encouraged the publication and circulation of Canadian periodicals....

42 The History of the Book in Japan

42 The History of the Book in Japan   Reference library

P. F. Kornicki

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
8,152 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
4

...either for reasons of economy, or because of rarity, or as a way of learning the text: this last purpose was recommended, for example, in the case of the Onna daigaku (Greater Learning for Women), a moral primer for girls first published in the early 18 th century. Another reason for preferring MS over print was to restrict the circulation of new knowledge: innovative medical techniques or new styles of ikebana (flower arrangement), for example, generated an income for the initiators, and it was therefore in their interests to restrict circulation by...

44 The History of the Book in Australia

44 The History of the Book in Australia   Reference library

Ian Morrison

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,163 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...run of 100 copies. Modelled on the * London Gazette , it contained official notices, advertisements, and general news. With such a tiny circulation, its survival depended on Howe’s government salary and the success of his other business ventures, notably trading in sandalwood. In 1810 , Howe replaced the original wooden *common press with an iron *Stanhope . By 1819 , the colony’s population had grown to 30,000 and the Gazette ’s circulation to 400. Howe’s publishing activities expanded to include missionary works in Pacific languages, some literary...

35 The Slavonic Book in Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus

35 The Slavonic Book in Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus   Reference library

Christine Thomas

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
7,074 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

...disseminate dissident and other forbidden literature but also to make up for the shortage of popular and perfectly legal publications. During the Brezhnev era, known as the ‘period of stagnation’, the book industries remained stable. In the 1970s and early 1980s , all printing was censored, and the central control of raw materials and printing continued to influence print runs. Authors were paid to a standard formula, according to genre (e.g. fiction or textbook) and length. Perhaps for this reason, the average length of a Soviet book in 1984 was about 136...

5 The European Medieval Book

5 The European Medieval Book   Reference library

Christopher de Hamel

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
10,077 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...By about 1150 , however, the number of works in circulation had rapidly become far too great for any person to manage. New kinds of books were therefore devised: glossed texts with selected marginal quotations for quick reference, *encyclopaedias (such as Peter Lombard ’s Sententiae for theology and Gratian’s Decretum for canon law), *concordances , *florilegia , digests, and *indexes . Scribes devised ways of looking things up, with devices such as alphabetical order, chapter numbers for the Bible and other texts, tables of contents, coloured...

14 Printed Ephemera

14 Printed Ephemera   Reference library

Michael Harris

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
7,085 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...Street paper to achieve circulation of a million copies for a single issue. At the same time, the newspaper moved beyond the orbit of the relatively conventional and sluggish book trade into its own industrial system. It was a sign of the times when, in 1937 , the book trade’s much-venerated business organization was retitled the Worshipful Company of Stationers and Newspaper Makers. Despite this remarkable growth in output, the status and importance of the newspaper remained contested issues. At the end of the 19 th century, for example, the idea of the...

22 The History of the Book in France

22 The History of the Book in France   Reference library

Vincent Giroud

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
10,215 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...Jean de Gonet, has been remarkable both for his efforts to democratize original bindings by using industrial *leather (‘revorim’) and because, unlike them, he operated his own workshop rather than being strictly a designer. World War II, when the country was occupied for more than four years, had dramatic consequences for the book world. Censorship was imposed by the Nazis (the notorious ‘Otto list’); shortages of paper more than halved production; ‘Aryanization’ measures affected individuals (such as the general administrator of the BN, Julien Cain, who...

28 The History of the Book in Italy

28 The History of the Book in Italy   Reference library

Neil Harris

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
10,132 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...the key moment in this literacy-failure probably occurred in 1559 , when the first Roman * Index banned the Bible in Italian. Quite independently of the sacred text’s content and import, the Bible is a large book and therefore its removal from circulation had important and damaging consequences for the general standard of literacy. Before that date, reading the scriptures, even by those who knew little or no Latin, was fairly widespread in Italian society. The earliest volgarizzamento of the Bible by Nicolò Malermi had appeared in Venice in 1471 . The...

24 The History of the Book in Germany

24 The History of the Book in Germany   Reference library

John L. Flood

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
10,164 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

...for example. Even university libraries were hardly user-friendly: those at Leipzig and Halle were open for only four hours a week, and it was considered a real novelty when Göttingen, on its foundation in 1734 , opened its library every day to staff and students and allowed them to borrow books—from the outset, this library was conceived as a research facility. As the reading habit grew, so too did demand for access to books. This resulted in the establishment of lending libraries and ‘reading societies’, which in turn stimulated the demand for more...

38 The History of the Book in the Muslim World

38 The History of the Book in the Muslim World   Reference library

Geoffrey Roper

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
13,249 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
4

...had published more than 1,600 titles, representing about 20 per cent of total Egyptian book production. As the first press in the Arab world to produce Arabic (and Turkish) books for Muslims, the Būlāq Press occupies a crucial place in Arabic and Muslim book history. Although some of its early output achieved only a very limited circulation, it nevertheless established printing for the first time as a normal method of producing and diffusing texts. Initially, technical and educational works, and, then, historical, literary, and religious titles became...

Publishing

Publishing   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
6,242 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

... ( 1821 ). Both were denied legal protection on the grounds of their blasphemous and seditious content, thereby enabling a host of predatory publishers to produce cheap pirate editions. Part of the reason for Byron's extraordinary circulation figures was precisely the inability of his legal publishers to prevent such piracy. Piracy might have been a problem for law-abiding British publishers, particularly because of the difficulty of policing the activities of systematic operators like Patrick Byrne ( fl. 1789–1802 ), who worked out of the lively provincial...

travel Literature

travel Literature  

Travel writing constituted one of the largest genres of Romantic-period publication. It included accounts of experience and exploration [37] beyond Europe, descriptions of European peripheries as ...
Kent

Kent  

One of the kingdoms of Anglo-Saxon England, probably covering much the same area as the modern county of Kent in SE England. (See also Garden of England at garden.)Man of Kent a native or inhabitant ...
public health

public health  

The health or physical well‐being of a whole community.
insanity

insanity  

Another name for mental disorder, especially in legal contexts, where it refers specifically to conditions that impair one's ability to discharge one's legal responsibilities. See also McNaghten ...
Explorers and Exploration

Explorers and Exploration   Reference library

Tracey Jean Boisseau

The Oxford Encyclopedia Women in World History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History
Length:
3,070 words
Illustration(s):
2

...send her around the world in 1889 in an attempt to break the record for round‐the‐world travel set by Phileas Fogg in Jules Vernes's novel Around the World in Eighty Days ( 1873 ). A rival newspaper sponsored a female competitor named Elisabeth Bisland ( 1861–1929 ) to make the race more interesting to the general public and to increase readership. Although Bly and her editors accomplished their aims with a stunt that garnered enormous fame for Bly and record‐breaking circulation for the World , neither Bisland's nor Bly's travel around the world added...

Oceanography in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries

Oceanography in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to World Exploration

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History
Length:
2,268 words

...sail for the New World. In 1800 the zoologist François Péron sailed for Australian waters with the Nicolas Baudin expedition. Both Humboldt and Péron were to bring back information that would profoundly influence thinking about the sea in the new century. In particular, their observations would give substance to ideas already being mooted in the second half of the eighteenth century—for instance, ideas that variations in salinity and temperature might, by affecting the relative densities of seawater, be responsible for large-scale deep circulation of ocean...

Art and Architecture

Art and Architecture   Reference library

Susan Fillin‐Yeh, Natalie Boymel Kampen, Patricia Mathews, Laura Auricchio, Natalie Kampen, Dorothy Bauhoff, and Alice T. Friedman

The Oxford Encyclopedia Women in World History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History
Length:
12,533 words
Illustration(s):
2

...for the first houses were generated by one sex. In nomadic and agrarian preindustrial societies throughout the world and throughout history, the secrecy of initiates' religious practice has made it difficult to take note of women's painting, carving, pottery, and metalwork, as well as of the kinds of spaces women used in their own rituals, but clearly such ritual needs were often met by women's skills. From the beginning, women have made fabric. Homer praised Penelope's courageous weaving in The Odyssey ( 800 b.c.e. ). In pre‐Columbian South America and...

Witchcraft

Witchcraft   Reference library

Ed Benson

The Oxford Encyclopedia Women in World History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History
Length:
2,296 words
Illustration(s):
1

...than in the feudal era to be simple cultivation and more likely to consist of the ever more complex creation and circulation of commodities and services, while the increasing autonomy of those exchanging work within this economic system led to a redefinition of the categories they used to relate to each other, including gender. Marriage partners were prized less according to titles of specific properties in their names, for instance, than for skills and interests they could contribute to the economic success of the new couple. The new political order taking...

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