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American Notes for General Circulation

Travel account by Dickens, published in 1842. Dickens visited the U.S. (Jan.–May 1842) in a tour that took him from Boston and New York to Canada and as far west as St. Louis. His book is ...

insanity

insanity  

Another name for mental disorder, especially in legal contexts, where it refers specifically to conditions that impair one's ability to discharge one's legal responsibilities. See also McNaghten ...
Architecture

Architecture   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Classical Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Classical studies
Length:
93,988 words
Illustration(s):
35

...was used for entertaining city guests and traditionally contained the city’s sacred hearth. The prytaneion, however, did not develop into an architecturally distinct type but instead resembled a private house with a dining-room. The bouleuterion, on the other hand, ultimately evolved into a theatre-type auditorium inside a characteristically square or rectangular building, often utilizing the natural slope of a hill. Its roof was usually carried by four internal supports, and its size varied according to the needs of each polis . This general type was...

Poetry, Greek

Poetry, Greek   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
29,051 words
Illustration(s):
4

...written mainly for Dorians. Some Doric lyric was performed by an accompanied chorus, other poetry by one accompanied singer. Hexameter poetry includes narratives of heroes and gods and poems of instruction. The two extant heroic narratives, the Iliad and the Odyssey , are so huge that the circumstances of performance are puzzling. Delphi's riches ( Iliad 9.404–405) point to the period after about 725 for the Iliad 's composition. The many repeated phrases or formulas—“swift-footed Achilles,” and so on—supposedly without duplication for their metrical...

Pottery

Pottery   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Classical Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Classical studies
Length:
83,455 words
Illustration(s):
27

...strength of the glaze. White was still largely reserved for the ground, though also employed for patterns on garments. Painting was completed before firing. Four-colour painting was used mainly on cups and pyxides. Even in the 5th century bc alabastra were generally decorated purely in outline, while special painting techniques were developed in the Classical period for lekythoi. White-ground was virtually confined to these four shapes, though it was used occasionally on others. The most beautiful four-colour cups were made c. 475– c. 460 bc and are...

Classical Tradition

Classical Tradition   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
16,216 words
Illustration(s):
5

...set an example for other rich collectors around Rome. And so artists began to flock to the city to study what became for three centuries the canon of ancient art. Equally formative were the frescoes of the recently unearthed Golden House of Nero: their “grotesque” decorations informed Raphael's designs at the loggias in the Vatican and at the villas Farnesina and Madama and became a must in other High Renaissance residences. The fame of these sculptures and paintings was further disseminated through prints, thus achieving wide circulation and emulation....

Archaeology

Archaeology   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
29,974 words
Illustration(s):
3

...the finds. The excavations became the training ground for the first generation of German field archaeologists, and its scholarly reports set a new standard for archaeological publication. Other similar foreign-led excavations in Greece followed. By the end of the century the French had major excavations at Delos and Delphi, and the British and the Americans had established their own projects. The start of the American excavations at Corinth in 1896 established one of the most important projects in American classical archaeology. This growing interest in Greek...

Classical Scholarship

Classical Scholarship   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
18,162 words

...the speeches of Cicero, and a copy of Valerius Flaccus’ Argonautica . Poggio is also responsible for uncovering manuscripts of Silius Italicus, Statius’ Silvae , and Manilius in 1417 . He played a leading role in the development and dissemination of the new script called humanist minuscule, modeled on Caroline minuscule. The cursive version of the script, invented by Niccolò Niccoli around 1420 , was used by humanist scholars to expedite the circulation of newly discovered classical texts. Lorenzo Valla ( 1407–1457 ), a pupil of Leonardo Bruni (...

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