Update
The Oxford Biblical Studies Online and Oxford Islamic Studies Online have retired. Content you previously purchased on Oxford Biblical Studies Online or Oxford Islamic Studies Online has now moved to Oxford Reference, Oxford Handbooks Online, Oxford Scholarship Online, or What Everyone Needs to Know®. For information on how to continue to view articles visit the subscriber services page.
Dismiss

You are looking at 1-20 of 51 entries  for:

  • All: American Notes for General Circulation x
  • Art & Architecture x
clear all

View:

Overview

American Notes for General Circulation

Travel account by Dickens, published in 1842. Dickens visited the U.S. (Jan.–May 1842) in a tour that took him from Boston and New York to Canada and as far west as St. Louis. His book is ...

insanity

insanity  

Another name for mental disorder, especially in legal contexts, where it refers specifically to conditions that impair one's ability to discharge one's legal responsibilities. See also McNaghten ...
American West, photography and the

American West, photography and the   Reference library

Julia Galandi-Pascual

The Oxford Companion to the Photograph

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
1,790 words
Illustration(s):
2

...Sandweiss, M. A. , Print the Legend: Photography and the American West (2002). Brunet, F. & Griffith, B. (eds.) Images of the West. Survey Photography in French Collections, 1860-1880 (2007). Respini, E. Into the Sunset. Photography's Image of the American West (2009). American West, 1867–1879 When armchair travellers of the late 19th century imagined the American West, their vision was profoundly influenced by the work of nineteen photographers, painters, and draughtsmen who travelled on four US Geological and Geographical Surveys of the Western...

Periodicals

Periodicals   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of American Art

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
8,323 words

...addressing the issues of their professional status; in 1860 it included the minutes of the American Institute of Architects. Its double orientation presaged the course of events following the Civil War, when purely architectural periodicals did not enjoy the long runs and high circulation of those for the building industry, which prospered because of postwar reconstruction. They included the American Builder and Journal of Art , later ( 1873 ) American Builder: A Journal of Industrial Art , merging ( 1880 ) with Illustrated Woodworker (New York, ...

Cole, Thomas

Cole, Thomas (1 Feb 1801)   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of American Art

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
2,235 words
Illustration(s):
1

...series, The Voyage of Life ( 1839–40 ; Utica, NY, Munson–Williams–Proctor Inst.; second version, 1841–2 ; Washington, DC, N.G.A.). A four-part allegory painted in the period of Cole's conversion to the Episcopal Church, The Voyage of Life was a highly accessible series whose Christian theme of resignation appealed to popular sentiments. Engraved by the American Art-Union, it enjoyed a wide national circulation. Cole's tale of youthful imperial visions followed by the sobering setbacks of maturity placed him once again at a philosophical remove from...

Native North American art

Native North American art   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of American Art

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
56,066 words
Illustration(s):
17

...a museum of Native American objects for display at the Chicago World's Columbian Exposition of 1893 . The exhibit of native North America was divided into twelve cultural areas, which subsequently influenced the emergence of cultural boundaries of indigenous artifacts within museum exhibitions and collections. The practice soon spread to the National Museum of American Art (now the Smithsonian American Art Museum), Washington, DC, and the American Museum of Natural History, New York, and became standard for general works on Native America as well as museum...

Dürer

Dürer   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Northern Renaissance Art

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
16,076 words
Illustration(s):
7

...1470–1532 ) after designs by Dürer. Drawings for neck and back plates, visors and scabbards (Vienna, Albertina; New York, Morgan Lib. & Mus.; Berlin, Kupferstichkab.; London, BM; w 678–82, 712; s 1517/3–9), dated 1517 in another hand, depict emblems such as cranes, the symbol of vigilance, and pomegranates, the Emperor's personal emblem, which also appear in the Hours of Emperor Maximilian I. During this period Dürer also produced four friezes of religious subjects (perhaps designs for ornamental metalwork for his brother, Endres Dürer, including a frieze...

Textile

Textile   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Materials and Techniques in Art

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
30,529 words
Illustration(s):
15

...carpet for example, it can be transferred to an open mesh frame to allow free circulation of air. Not all textiles are suitable for washing. If the dyes are fugitive in water, if the finish or surface decoration would be disturbed, or if the type of soiling will not respond to water, organic solvents are sometimes used. The best results can be obtained only in a proper dry-cleaning machine, but most objects are not strong enough to withstand the violent mechanical action of commercial machines. An added complication is the steady withdrawal from general use of...

Blair, Hugh

Blair, Hugh (1718–1800)   Reference library

Joseph Keim Campbell

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
1,442 words

...Brinton, Alan . “Hugh Blair and the True Eloquence.” Rhetoric Society Quarterly 22 (1992): 30–42. Broaddus, Dottie . “Authoring Elitism: Francis Hutcheson and Hugh Blair in Scotland and America.” Rhetoric Society Quarterly 24 (1994): 39–52. Burton, John Hill . Life and Correspondence of David Hume . 2 vols. Edinburgh: Tait, 1846. Carr, Stephen L. “The Circulation of Blair’s Lectures .” Rhetoric Society Quarterly 32 (2002): 75–104. Chapman, R. W. “Blair on Ossian.” Review of English Studies 7 (1931): 80–83. Cohen, Herman . “Hugh Blair’s Theory...

Latin American Aesthetics

Latin American Aesthetics   Reference library

María Herrera, Elizabeth Millán, Hugo Moreno, Andrea Giunta, Tamara Stuby, and Rachel Weiss

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
15,176 words
Illustration(s):
6

... Gaos outlines the main characteristics of modern Hispanic aesthetic thought. Gaos notes that Hispanic thinkers tend to write texts for the general public rather than for a purely academic audience. As a result of the broader intended readership, much of Hispanic thought is found in the form of essays, newspaper and magazine articles, memoirs, novels, poems, and plays. Hispanic aesthetic thought, therefore, tends to be literary rather than technical in nature and Latin American aesthetic discourse tends to be metaphoric and narrative rather than strictly...

Notation

Notation   Reference library

Leo Treitler and Ann Hutchinson Guest

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
9,431 words
Illustration(s):
7

...analysis, one reckons all the intervals that can be made between any two pitches in the group and counts the number of intervals of each size that the group thus contains. The size is given in terms of the distance in half steps between the two notes of each interval—for example, a major third counts as four, a fourth counts as five, a tritone counts as six. It is in the number of intervals of each size contained in the two motifs—that is, their intervallic contents—that they are identical. This certainly does limit the musical material of the two passages in...

Stein, Gertrude

Stein, Gertrude (1874–1946)   Reference library

Marjorie Perloff

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
4,666 words

...origins, she had as little taste for German culture as for the Jewish religion, always insisting that she belonged to the Anglo-American tradition, as it came down to her from William Shakespeare to George Eliot and Henry James. One of the great literary innovators of the century, she was politically a conservative; indeed at the outset of World War II, she was an admirer of Marshall Pétain. A writer who was lesbian, she expressed no interest in or enthusiasm for the work of other lesbian writers—or of women writers in general, unless, as in the case of Edith...

Conceptualism

Conceptualism   Reference library

Luke Skrebowski, Luis Camnitzer, and Octavian Esanu

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
10,818 words
Illustration(s):
2

...applied. Artists in Latin America were educated for a nonexisting local market. This promoted a “brain drain” toward the cultural centers encouraged by local and foreign grants. But for those who chose to stay, the lack of a market had the paradoxical virtue to free them to deal with surrounding reality. Artists who stayed in their places of origin mostly created in the spare time allowed by their struggle for subsistence. The concept of market branding as a determinant for their production therefore became secondary to a need for communication. Brand...

Gift

Gift   Reference library

Dirk Quadflieg

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
3,802 words
Illustration(s):
1

...gift giving forms “one of the bases of social life” ( Mauss, 1966 , p. 2) in general. In his view, this principle of reciprocity, though hidden, still underlies Western capitalist societies and could therefore be revived to answer some of the pressing questions concerning the anomies of modern individualism. To clarify the binding character of the gift, Mauss refers to the potlatch, an agonistic form of gift exchange practiced by Indian tribes on the northwestern coast of America. For this ritual, clans accumulate great wealth in order to pass it on to rival...

Arnold, Matthew

Arnold, Matthew (1822–1888)   Reference library

Joseph Carroll

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
4,143 words

...the whole British population, and at other times he spurns the common public and seeks salvation only among and for the cultivated few. In his later works, Arnold identifies four “powers” or faculties of civilization: conduct, intellect, social life, and beauty. The first two powers are those of Hebraism and Hellenism. The power of social life makes itself felt in his acknowledgment that great eras of artistic creation depend on a general circulation of cultural energy within a larger social order. As his definition of human perfection suggests, the idea of...

Chinese Aesthetics

Chinese Aesthetics   Reference library

Haun Saussy, Susan H. Bush, and Ban Wang

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
13,337 words
Illustration(s):
5

...the five musical notes, and so forth. The system in all its refinements appears in calendrical and divinatory manuals (among them the later strata of the Yi jing or Book of Changes and the Canon of Supreme Mystery ( Tai xuan jing ) of Yang Xiong (53 bce–18 ce ). Here one may recognize a reappearance of the differentiated sets of elements first put into circulation by theorists of music and ritual. Students of comparative philosophy are bound to take an interest in these models, because their lingering influence has often been blamed for the neglect of...

Conceptual Art

Conceptual Art   Reference library

Jacob Stewart-Halevy, Michael Baldwin, Charles Harrison, Mel Ramsden, Mary Kelly, and Yair Guttmann

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
14,663 words
Illustration(s):
2

...had begun to use mass culture’s publicity apparatus as a readymade form for the distribution and circulation for his art, often as a means of unearthing the vulgarity repressed within late modernism. His 1967 Homes for America , published as a kind of ironic work of photojournalism in Arts Magazine , drew unforeseen affinities between the serial repetition of modular minimalist forms and prefabricated middle-class suburban housing units. His 1969 Detumescence advertisement called for a clinical description of the phallus in retreat, poking fun at the way...

Derrida, Jacques

Derrida, Jacques   Reference library

Stephen Melville, Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak, Peggy Kamuf, and D. N. Rodowick

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
16,311 words

...Paul de Man, Derrida’s most prominent American interpreter—to a view of “literary language” as enacting a temporal play of mystification and demystification (thus the privilege of Romanticism over its presumably demystified modernist sequel) that was a key at once to the dynamics of literary history and to the general rhetorical undoing of the subject by the prior fact of language. De Man’s work culminates in a collection of posthumously published essays titled, by the book’s editor with some support from de Man’s notes, Aesthetic Ideology . That de Man’s...

Architecture

Architecture   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Classical Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Classical studies
Length:
93,988 words
Illustration(s):
35

...was used for entertaining city guests and traditionally contained the city’s sacred hearth. The prytaneion, however, did not develop into an architecturally distinct type but instead resembled a private house with a dining-room. The bouleuterion, on the other hand, ultimately evolved into a theatre-type auditorium inside a characteristically square or rectangular building, often utilizing the natural slope of a hill. Its roof was usually carried by four internal supports, and its size varied according to the needs of each polis . This general type was...

Diaspora Criticism

Diaspora Criticism   Reference library

Sudesh Mishra

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
3,674 words

...for instance, points out that the Indian diaspora cannot be regarded as a unified entity if we take note of the two major phases of emigration which have occurred over distinct historical and economic periods, involving different classes, castes, linguistic communes, regions, religions, and levels of skill and education. Is it possible, he asks, to compare the life-worlds of indentured peasants sent to various hinterland colonies in the nineteenth century with that of post-1960s petit bourgeois migrants to the overdeveloped nodes of the West? He notes that...

Aristotle

Aristotle   Reference library

Elizabeth Belfiore, Ronna Burger, Stephen Halliwell, Richard Janko, and Leon Golden

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
14,560 words

...sources, that a second book, including a discussion of comedy, originally followed. (For an attempt at reconstruction, and evaluation of the evidence for a second book, see Janko, 1984 .) The text of the Poetics also contains numerous lacunae and other textual difficulties, many real or apparent inconsistencies, and frequent obscurities. Whether or not it is a series of lecture notes, as many scholars believe, it is certainly not a polished work written for the general public. The elliptical style leaves many terms and concepts in need of explanation....

View: