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American Notes for General Circulation

Travel account by Dickens, published in 1842. Dickens visited the U.S. (Jan.–May 1842) in a tour that took him from Boston and New York to Canada and as far west as St. Louis. His book is ...

46 The History of the Book in Latin America (including Incas, Aztecs, and the Caribbean)

46 The History of the Book in Latin America (including Incas, Aztecs, and the Caribbean)   Reference library

Eugenia Roldán Vera

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,881 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

...Uruguay, and Venezuela. CERLALC’s aim was and is to promote the production, circulation, distribution, and reading of books in Latin America. Its design incorporates legal frameworks for free trade in books; it encourages regional governments to sign international conventions concerning copyright and against *piracy ; it initiates reading campaigns and training for professionals in the book industry. CERLALC also monitors aspects of book production and circulation in most Latin American countries, about which it publishes quantitative material and qualitative...

47 The History of the Book in Canada

47 The History of the Book in Canada   Reference library

Patricia Lockhart Fleming

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
5,134 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...to subscribers who signed up for a religious or topical volume. For everyday reading, almanacs—particularly Quebec’s literary and historical series—remained popular. The circulation of daily and weekly newspapers exceeded 1 million copies before the end of the 19 th century; and despite an abundance of imported titles, domestic publishers supplied religious and agricultural serials as well as illustrated magazines. The postal rate, reduced to a penny per pound by the end of the century, encouraged the publication and circulation of Canadian periodicals....

42 The History of the Book in Japan

42 The History of the Book in Japan   Reference library

P. F. Kornicki

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
8,152 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
4

...either for reasons of economy, or because of rarity, or as a way of learning the text: this last purpose was recommended, for example, in the case of the Onna daigaku (Greater Learning for Women), a moral primer for girls first published in the early 18 th century. Another reason for preferring MS over print was to restrict the circulation of new knowledge: innovative medical techniques or new styles of ikebana (flower arrangement), for example, generated an income for the initiators, and it was therefore in their interests to restrict circulation by...

44 The History of the Book in Australia

44 The History of the Book in Australia   Reference library

Ian Morrison

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,163 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...run of 100 copies. Modelled on the * London Gazette , it contained official notices, advertisements, and general news. With such a tiny circulation, its survival depended on Howe’s government salary and the success of his other business ventures, notably trading in sandalwood. In 1810 , Howe replaced the original wooden *common press with an iron *Stanhope . By 1819 , the colony’s population had grown to 30,000 and the Gazette ’s circulation to 400. Howe’s publishing activities expanded to include missionary works in Pacific languages, some literary...

35 The Slavonic Book in Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus

35 The Slavonic Book in Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus   Reference library

Christine Thomas

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
7,074 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

...disseminate dissident and other forbidden literature but also to make up for the shortage of popular and perfectly legal publications. During the Brezhnev era, known as the ‘period of stagnation’, the book industries remained stable. In the 1970s and early 1980s , all printing was censored, and the central control of raw materials and printing continued to influence print runs. Authors were paid to a standard formula, according to genre (e.g. fiction or textbook) and length. Perhaps for this reason, the average length of a Soviet book in 1984 was about 136...

5 The European Medieval Book

5 The European Medieval Book   Reference library

Christopher de Hamel

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
10,077 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...By about 1150 , however, the number of works in circulation had rapidly become far too great for any person to manage. New kinds of books were therefore devised: glossed texts with selected marginal quotations for quick reference, *encyclopaedias (such as Peter Lombard ’s Sententiae for theology and Gratian’s Decretum for canon law), *concordances , *florilegia , digests, and *indexes . Scribes devised ways of looking things up, with devices such as alphabetical order, chapter numbers for the Bible and other texts, tables of contents, coloured...

14 Printed Ephemera

14 Printed Ephemera   Reference library

Michael Harris

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
7,085 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...Street paper to achieve circulation of a million copies for a single issue. At the same time, the newspaper moved beyond the orbit of the relatively conventional and sluggish book trade into its own industrial system. It was a sign of the times when, in 1937 , the book trade’s much-venerated business organization was retitled the Worshipful Company of Stationers and Newspaper Makers. Despite this remarkable growth in output, the status and importance of the newspaper remained contested issues. At the end of the 19 th century, for example, the idea of the...

22 The History of the Book in France

22 The History of the Book in France   Reference library

Vincent Giroud

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
10,215 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...Jean de Gonet, has been remarkable both for his efforts to democratize original bindings by using industrial *leather (‘revorim’) and because, unlike them, he operated his own workshop rather than being strictly a designer. World War II, when the country was occupied for more than four years, had dramatic consequences for the book world. Censorship was imposed by the Nazis (the notorious ‘Otto list’); shortages of paper more than halved production; ‘Aryanization’ measures affected individuals (such as the general administrator of the BN, Julien Cain, who...

28 The History of the Book in Italy

28 The History of the Book in Italy   Reference library

Neil Harris

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
10,132 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...the key moment in this literacy-failure probably occurred in 1559 , when the first Roman * Index banned the Bible in Italian. Quite independently of the sacred text’s content and import, the Bible is a large book and therefore its removal from circulation had important and damaging consequences for the general standard of literacy. Before that date, reading the scriptures, even by those who knew little or no Latin, was fairly widespread in Italian society. The earliest volgarizzamento of the Bible by Nicolò Malermi had appeared in Venice in 1471 . The...

24 The History of the Book in Germany

24 The History of the Book in Germany   Reference library

John L. Flood

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
10,164 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

...for example. Even university libraries were hardly user-friendly: those at Leipzig and Halle were open for only four hours a week, and it was considered a real novelty when Göttingen, on its foundation in 1734 , opened its library every day to staff and students and allowed them to borrow books—from the outset, this library was conceived as a research facility. As the reading habit grew, so too did demand for access to books. This resulted in the establishment of lending libraries and ‘reading societies’, which in turn stimulated the demand for more...

38 The History of the Book in the Muslim World

38 The History of the Book in the Muslim World   Reference library

Geoffrey Roper

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
13,249 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
4

...had published more than 1,600 titles, representing about 20 per cent of total Egyptian book production. As the first press in the Arab world to produce Arabic (and Turkish) books for Muslims, the Būlāq Press occupies a crucial place in Arabic and Muslim book history. Although some of its early output achieved only a very limited circulation, it nevertheless established printing for the first time as a normal method of producing and diffusing texts. Initially, technical and educational works, and, then, historical, literary, and religious titles became...

Maritime Climate

Maritime Climate   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Science and technology, Earth Sciences and Geography, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
4,268 words
Illustration(s):
2

...34 Honolulu, Hawaii 4.3 49 * Using Kerner's index where the higher the value the more maritime the climate. [ See also Dynamics ; and General Circulation .] Bibliography Broecker, W. “ The Great Ocean Conveyor .” Oceanography 4 (1991) 79–89. Conrad, V. “ Usual Formulas of Continentality and Their Limits of Validity .” Transactions of American Geophysical Union 27 (1946): 663–664. Driscoll, D. M. , and J. Fong . “ Continentality: A Basic Climatic Parameter Re-examined .” International Journal of Climatology 12 (1992): 185–192. Gray, W. M. “...

Comics and the Graphic Novel

Comics and the Graphic Novel   Reference library

Melanie Huska

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
1,533 words
Illustration(s):
1

...comics, and was so successful that by the 1940s, American adventure comics were flooding international markets. Adventure stories did not achieve widespread popularity in Britain until the 1950s. Worldwide—in England, Japan, Australia, Argentina, and Yugoslavia, for example—publishers attempted to cultivate their own native successes by mimicking the American superhero formula. Still, many markets, including of those in England, Japan, France, and South America, could not compete with the demand for American titles. Adventure and humor comics were broad...

Ocean Dynamics

Ocean Dynamics   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
6,281 words
Illustration(s):
7

...exchanges heat with the atmosphere. This system of meridional overturning cells constitutes the thermohaline circulation for the global ocean. Net warm-to-cold-water conversion occurs in the northern North Atlantic, while cold-to-warm-water conversion occurs in the subtropical Indian and Pacific Oceans. Of note is the warm surface current that wends its way through each of the basins to terminate in the northern North Atlantic, where it supplies water for the formation of deep water. While the schematic shows principal pathways of the conveyor belt system, it...

Psalmody

Psalmody   Reference library

Richard Crawford and Laurie J. Sampsel

The Grove Dictionary of American Music (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Music, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
6,444 words
Illustration(s):
11

...School of composers and of the American styles they developed. The success of the reform movement in the cities of the Atlantic seaboard and New England marked the end, by 1820 , of the indigenous New England compositional style as a creative force. It did not, however, end the circulation of its repertory. New England tunes survived in collections published in upstate New York, western Pennsylvania, Ohio, and the Shenandoah Valley of Virginia, as well as in the shape-note collections published farther south ( see Shape-note hymnody ). In these outlying...

Abolition

Abolition   Reference library

Sandra Jean Graham

The Grove Dictionary of American Music (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Music, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,414 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Masur : “‘A Rare Phenomenon of Philological Vegetation’: the Word ‘Contraband’ and the Meanings of Emancipation in the United States,” Journal of American History , xciii/4 (2007), 1050–84 M.C. Cohen : “Contraband Singing: Poems and Songs in Circulation during the Civil War,” American Literature , lxxxii (2010), 271–304 Sandra Jean...

Meteorology

Meteorology   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Maritime History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Military History
Length:
6,418 words
Illustration(s):
1

...rev. Edited by Kh.P. Pogosyan. Translated by Ron Hardin. Jerusalem: Israel Program for Scientific Translations, 1970. Kutzbach, Gisela . The Thermal Theory of Cyclones: A History of Meteorological Thought in the Nineteenth Century . Boston: American Meteorological Society, 1979. Lorenz, Edward N . The Nature and Theory of the General Circulation of the Atmosphere . Geneva, Switzerland: World Meteorological Organization, 1967. Persson, Anders . The Coriolis Effect: Four Centuries of Conflict between Common Sense and Mathematics, Part I: A History to 1885 ....

Arid Climates

Arid Climates   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Science and technology, Earth Sciences and Geography, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
1,742 words
Illustration(s):
2

...the deep convection (upward motion) necessary for heavy rain. Subtropical anticyclones are a permanent feature of the general circulation of the atmosphere, and they anchor the downward branch of the Hadley cell (the circulation feature that also includes rising motion near the equator and poleward flow aloft toward the subtropics). [ See General Circulation .] The entire Saudi Arabian Peninsula experiences a desert climate under the influence of sinking air currents of both Hadley and Walker circulation cells. A generalized model of continental...

El Niño, La Niña, and the Southern Oscillation

El Niño, La Niña, and the Southern Oscillation   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Science and technology, Earth Sciences and Geography, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
2,561 words
Illustration(s):
2

...atmosphere. Similar interactions are believed to contribute to climate variability in generalfor example, prolonged drought in Africa, failure of the monsoons over India, and differences in the winter severities of northern America and Europe. [ See also Tropical Circulations .] Bibliography Cane, M. “ The Evolution of El Niño, Past and Future .” Earth and Planetary Science Letters 230, no. 3–4 (2005): 227–240. Philander, S. G. H. “ El Niño and La Nina .” American Scientist 77, no. 5 (1989): 451–459. Philander, S. G. H. El Niño, La Niña and the...

Regional Patterns of Climate Change

Regional Patterns of Climate Change   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
2,503 words
Illustration(s):
6

...of greater (lesser) storminess. Also note that the land-ocean SLP contrast over Asia decreases in future climate conditions, which indicates a weakening of the South and East Asia monsoon circulations. Monsoon rain still increases, however, due to the greater water-holding capacity of the warmer future atmosphere. Regional Patterns of Climate Change. Figure 2. Same as Figure 1 but for precipitation change. Units are % of 1961–1990 precipitation. Regional Patterns of Climate Change. Figure 3. Same as Figure 1 but for sea level pressure (SLP). Units are...

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