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Systemic art

Term coined by Lawrence Alloway in 1966 to describe a type of abstract art characterized by the use of very simple standardized forms, usually geometric in character, either in a single ...

Misogyny

Misogyny   Reference library

Melissa Stein

The Oxford Encyclopedia Women in World History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History
Length:
5,197 words

...is difficult to separate from gendered systems and structures of power. Though in the early twenty‐first century misogyny is frequently dismissed as a characteristic of individual men, from serial murderers to conservative despots, such a narrow definition obscures the more systemic nature and practical function of misogyny in past and present societies. Throughout history, misogyny has functioned to explain, justify, or reinforce women's exclusion from a variety of political, educational, and economic institutions. Furthermore, examples of misogyny can be...

Frontier, Backlands, and Indigenous Presence in Colonial São Paulo

Frontier, Backlands, and Indigenous Presence in Colonial São Paulo   Reference library

José Carlos Vilardaga

Oxford Encyclopedia of Brazilian History and Culture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
History
Length:
12,375 words
Illustration(s):
2

...the traditional view of the backwoodsman. 61 During the 1960s and 1970s, structuralist analyses of Brazilian colonial history sidelined São Paulo from large-scale general interpretations, believing its subsistence economy was of little relevance to the broad framework of systemic explanations. Beginning in the 1970s, however, a few studies grounded in innovative demographic and quantitative research mapped the Paulista economy, gradually tracing the city’s relations with other colonial areas. 62 Since the end of the 20th century , works that pay greater...

Alcohol and Drugs in Brazil

Alcohol and Drugs in Brazil   Reference library

Henrique S. Carneiro

Oxford Encyclopedia of Brazilian History and Culture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
History
Length:
9,542 words

...the production and trade of such stimulants that became central to Brazilian culture and economy. In the early 20th century also started the control of new opiate extracts such as morphine and heroin, as well as a substance that is both a topical anesthetic and a systemic excitant: cocaine. Additionally, there was a racially prejudiced drive against marijuana, demonized as a sanitary, moral, and eugenic risk. It is thus necessary to analyze the evolution of the legal framework of contemporary prohibitionism in Brazil against the broad background...

Education

Education   Reference library

Rebecca Rogers, Rebecca Rogers, Rebecca Rogers, and Carol O. Perkins

The Oxford Encyclopedia Women in World History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History
Length:
13,842 words
Illustration(s):
5

...• The 1976 amendments to the Vocational Education Act of 1963 require states to act affirmatively to eliminate sex bias, stereotyping, and discrimination in vocational education. • Affirmative action legislation from the 1970s has provided means by which institutionalized, systemic discrimination based on sex, race, age, and ability could be redressed. The university was from the beginning a male institution and found it comfortable to rationalize the exclusion of women, but not to remedy the discrimination against them. Affirmative action is an active...

Amazon Development

Amazon Development   Reference library

Antoine Acker

Oxford Encyclopedia of Brazilian History and Culture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
History
Length:
11,299 words

...16 Planted cacao also started to take off as an export crop in the late 17th century , in parallel to the enduring extraction of wild cacao by Indigenous, colons, African, and mixed-race populations. 17 Although it remained limited in scale, the early colonial economy caused systemic resource exhaustion affecting parts of the region’s biodiversity. For example, the massive exploitation of turtle eggs for oil export nearly provoked the decimation of the species, broke the river’s ecological chain, and deprived Indigenous communities of vital fishing...

venereal diseases

venereal diseases   Reference library

Janice Dickin

The Oxford Companion to Canadian History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
454 words

...than to vd . Although the main objective of the campaign was sexual continence, treatments for both gonorrhea and syphilis were made publicly available. Gonorrhea was treated largely with salves and irrigations until sulfa drugs were developed in 1932 . Syphilis was treated by systemic and extended introduction of arsenic into the body and, in the insane, by intentional infection with malaria. The major side effect of the latter was death due to high fever; the side effects of the former included extreme pain, long-term poisoning, and death from shock. All...

Breast Cancer

Breast Cancer   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in the United States

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
2,703 words

...(known as sentinel nodes). If the pathology of the lymph nodes shows that cancer cells have metastasized (spread through lymph vessels to other parts of the body), more aggressive chemotherapy is indicated. Systemic treatments used to kill cancer cells remaining elsewhere in the body include chemotherapy (drugs given in a cycle) and hormonal therapy. Systemic treatments are used pre- or postsurgery, depending on the patient's diagnosis. The most common chemotherapies are: (1) a cocktail containing Cytoxan, methotrexate, 5 fluorouracil; (2) Adriamycin; and ...

Toomer, Jean

Toomer, Jean (b. 26 December 1894)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of African American History 1896 to the Present

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,495 words

...Chicago. Part three dramatically synthesizes but does not offer resolution to the problem of the African American artist and his or her past, with the notion of the African American facing systemic challenges of racism in America. The semiautobiographical Kabnis is a longer dramatic piece, offering temporary transcendence from societal oppression through the power of art. Published by Boni and Liveright in 1923 , Cane was well received by black and white critics and was reissued in 1969 , two years after Toomer's death. Cane was celebrated by...

Immigrants and African Americans

Immigrants and African Americans   Reference library

Encyclopedia of African American History 1896 to the Present

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
3,568 words

...from the urgent need for systemic change and collective responsibility. Instead of addressing the root cause of the many problems that all Americans of color face, government agencies and the media have attempted to use the same stick to scratch the backs of Asian Americans that they have used to beat African Americans with: If Asian Americans can make it, why can't blacks? It has become a common habit with many Americans to assign individual responsibility without reference to the effects of harsh circumstance or long-term systemic exclusion. Urban public...

Deformity

Deformity   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...because there were no means to treat them. For clarity, recorded deformities were divide into those which affected (1) the whole body, (2) the head, (3) the face, (4) the spine and thorax, (5) the belly, and (6) the extremities. The Body The form of the body was affected in systemic disorders, such as aberrant growth caused by chondrodystrophy, a genetically transmitted disorder; there, enchondral ossification afflicts the bones of the face, pelvis, and extremities, which become short, broad, and deformed. Bones of the cranial vault and trunk remain normal...

Barbarians

Barbarians   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
4,281 words
Illustration(s):
2

...themselves. [ See also Propaganda, Roman .] Bibliography Cohen, Beth , ed. Not the Classical Ideal: Athens and the Construction of the Other in Greek Art . Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill, 2000. Contains several articles on “others” in Archaic and Classical Attic art. Ferris, I. M. Enemies of Rome: Barbarians through Roman Eyes . Stroud, U.K.: Sutton, 2000. A chronological study of barbarians in imperial art. Marszal, John . “Ubiquitous Barbarians: Representations of the Gauls at Pergamon and Elsewhere.” In Pergamon to Sperlonga: Sculpture and Context ,...

Diplomacy

Diplomacy   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945)
Length:
3,050 words

...the cynical Polish Partition of 1772 –all were triggered by the ruthless ambitions of monarchs and ministers. Still, from the 1760s onwards, these tendencies were at least partially counteracted by Enlightenment ideas on the collective interests of states, making for greater systemic stability; these ideas were also reflected in contemporary diplomatic thought and procedures. Free from nationalist and ideological constraints and hampered by military as well as economic limitations, rulers had neither means nor motives to pursue their policies to excess;...

Music

Music   Reference library

Encyclopedia of African American History 1896 to the Present

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
6,679 words

...real access to social, economic, or political authority and security. In a semifeudal province legendary for sustaining a rigid hierarchical structure that favored the few while ignoring the many, both black and white, the masses were marginalized. And the ramifications of systemic discrimination along racial, class, and gender lines have been horrendous. For generations, the South has endured as one of the most economically challenged and politically inequitable areas in the Union. The region especially has been oppressive regarding its black citizens....

Egypt

Egypt   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
6,039 words
Illustration(s):
2

...instability and eventual conquest both by Nubian kings from the south and by the Assyrians. It was during the Saite Period (Twenty-sixth Dynasty, 664–525 ) that the Egyptian rulers began significant contacts with the Aegean world. Psammetichus I ( r. 664–610 ) began several systemic practices that affected Egypt for the next millennium. The first was the introduction of Greek and other mercenaries into Egypt. These included Jewish mercenaries who established a colony at Syene (modern Aswan). The main mercenary group was the Carians, stationed mostly in the...

Linguistics

Linguistics   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Mesoamerican Cultures

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
5,303 words

...Beziehungen zueinander sowie zu Süd-Amerika und Mexiko . 2 vols. Berlin, 1920. Pioneer work on Central American languages which remains useful both because of its intrinsic excellence and because many of the language varieties he recorded are now extinct. Longacre, Robert E. “Systemic comparison and reconstruction.” In Handbook of Middle American Indians , vol. 5, edited by Norman A. McQuown , pp. 117–159. Austin, Tex., 1967. Comprehensive survey of reconstructions up to the date of publication, with important suggestions and evaluations. Longacre, Robert...

Progress

Progress   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945)
Length:
4,582 words

...became the basis for an imaginative reconstruction of the life and mores of early human society, for which documentary evidence did not exist. These innovations in historiography and early anthropology contributed greatly to seeing civilization as a whole and to envisioning its systemic alteration over time—vital elements of many doctrines of general progress. Furthermore, many of the leading historians and practitioners of conjectural history espoused in their own works a belief in progress. Related to these historiographic changes were substantial adjustments...

Violence

Violence   Reference library

Black Women in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
4,746 words
Illustration(s):
2

...most black women are resilient and use a variety of strategies to survive the violence in their lives. Although examining individual risk factors can provide some insight, the violence experienced by African American women has deep historical roots. It has been brutal, systemic, and institutionalized. Black women have faced, and continue to deal with, battery, rape, and other forms of sexual violence, while police brutality, community violence, and mass incarceration continue to claim the lives of African American men and boys. Roots in Slavery...

Global Cities and Processes

Global Cities and Processes   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in the United States

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
5,611 words

...corporate service firms—the lawyers, accountants, and telecommunications experts that service global capital. Globalizing of Survival Circuits Crucial to the formation of a global supply of caretakers and other kinds of low-wage workers in demand in global cities is the fact of systemic links between the growth of global survival circuits and negative economic conditions in countries of origin that have been amplified by economic globalization. Among these conditions are a growth in unemployment, the closure of a large number of typically small and medium-sized...

economic and social history

economic and social history   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
5,226 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Yet war also offered plunder and ransom, artificial comparative advantages for those less affected, and opportunities—even though perhaps more fraught with risk—for those profitably involved in supplying armies and garrisons, or in restoring ‘normalcy’. Up to a certain level of systemic damage, war could be an agent of ‘creative destruction’, and there were those who profited from rebuilding needs and from distorted patterns or volumes of demand. Where the balance lay between loss and profit has not been plausibly determined. Even where documentation is...

China

China   Reference library

R. Keith Schoppa

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
6,122 words
Illustration(s):
3

...political action, and that further changes would follow once the political system was changed. Others contended that any meaningful political change could be built only upon cultural change—an effort more evolutionary than revolutionary. This group attacked isms—overarching systemic blueprints that offered a holistic way out of China's predicament—and favored instead specific solutions to specific problems. After 1919 the question became how to build national power as quickly as possible so as to forestall continuing national humiliation and perhaps...

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