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American Notes for General Circulation

Travel account by Dickens, published in 1842. Dickens visited the U.S. (Jan.–May 1842) in a tour that took him from Boston and New York to Canada and as far west as St. Louis. His book is ...

Cultivation and Environmental Impact of Mushrooms

Cultivation and Environmental Impact of Mushrooms   Reference library

Shu Ting Chang and Solomon P. Wasser

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Agriculture and the Environment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Engineering and Technology
Length:
13,645 words
Illustration(s):
14

...wool stopper. Four formulas in the preparation of the substrate for the cultivation of the mushroom are given here as reference: (a) Sawdust 82%, wheat bran 16%, gypsum 1.4%, potassium phosphate, dibasic 0.2%, and lime 0.4%; (b) Sawdust 54%, spent coffee grounds 30%, wheat bran 15%, and gypsum 1%; (c) Sawdust 63%, corncob powder 20%, wheat bran 15%, calcium superphosphate 1%, and gypsum 1%; (d) Sawdust 76%, wheat bran 18%, corn powder 2%, gypsum 2%, sugar 1.2%, calcium superphosphate 0.5%, and urea 0.3%. Commercial scale cultivation : In general, the operation...

Sustainable Coffee Production

Sustainable Coffee Production   Reference library

Sarada Krishnan

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Agriculture and the Environment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Engineering and Technology
Length:
10,272 words
Illustration(s):
6

...& Export 143,306 88.17 93,275 88.21 Note : * Export statistics are for the period October 2015 to July 2016. Source : ICO ( 2016 ) . Sixty-five percent of the world’s coffee is consumed by just 17% of the world’s population ( Lewin et al., 2004 ). This provides tremendous opportunity for market expansion through promotion of coffee consumption in both producing and consuming countries. Table 3 provides statistics on imports by the top ten leading importing countries. The top ten countries account for about 81% of total imports, with the United...

The Early Anthropogenic Hypothesis

The Early Anthropogenic Hypothesis   Reference library

William Ruddiman

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Agriculture and the Environment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Engineering and Technology
Length:
15,193 words
Illustration(s):
14

...and John Kutzbach ran simulations using higher resolution general circulation models (GCM) that capture more of the high topography ( Kutzbach, Ruddiman, Vavrus, & Philippon, 2010 ; Kutzbach, Vavrus, Ruddiman, & Philippon-Berthier, 2011 ; Ruddiman, Vavrus, & Kutzbach, 2005 ; Vavrus, Philippon-Berthier, Kutzbach, & Ruddiman, 2011 ; Vavrus, Ruddiman, & Kutzbach, 2008 ). Because of the greater computational demands, these GCM simulations cover only a few decades, which is not enough time for ice sheets to form. But the models simulate months of snow...

Climate Change Impacts on Agriculture across Africa

Climate Change Impacts on Agriculture across Africa   Reference library

Laura Pereira

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Agriculture and the Environment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Engineering and Technology
Length:
11,754 words
Illustration(s):
1

...(IPCC) reports. The IPCC’s fourth assessment report ( IPCC, 2007 ) presented 23 general circulation models of climate (GCMs), but the underlying data used to generate information are so highly aggregated to be applicable at the global level that they are difficult to use in projecting regional climate ( Ziervogel et al., 2008 ). However, growing recognition of the need for climate information at finer scales has driven work aimed at downscaling global climate model information for local and regional decision makers; these are regional climate models (RCMs) (...

Soil Resources and the Delivery of Ecosystem Services and Value

Soil Resources and the Delivery of Ecosystem Services and Value   Reference library

David A. Robinson, Fiona Seaton, Katrina Sharps, Amy Thomas, Francis Parry Roberts, Martine van der Ploeg, Laurence Jones, Jannes Stolte, Maria Puig de la Bellacasa, Paula Harrison, and Bridget Emmett

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Agriculture and the Environment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Engineering and Technology
Length:
16,312 words
Illustration(s):
7

...suites of ecosystem service models. This is similar to the approach used in running global circulation models for climate simulations, to capture some aspects of the variability in outputs between models and to start to address issues of uncertainty in model outputs. Joint Environmental and Socioeconomic Modeling at National to Global Scales. The ecosystem services approach recognizes that we live in a coupled socioeconomic-environmental system. Large-scale ecosystem service models take an integrated, systemic approach to understand better the linkages and...

Terracing: From Agriculture to Multiple Ecosystem Services

Terracing: From Agriculture to Multiple Ecosystem Services   Reference library

Paolo Socci, Alessandro Errico, Giulio Castelli, Daniele Penna, and Federico Preti

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Agriculture and the Environment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Engineering and Technology
Length:
12,906 words
Illustration(s):
11

...suggesting that the distribution of failures on terraced systems may follow determined patterns that were hypothesized to be related to water circulation dynamics. Understanding the main hydrological processes that determine water flow pathways and runoff generation in Lamole and in other terraced landscapes is therefore of paramount importance for a better conceptualization of the functioning of these systems and for proper design and maintenance purposes ( Preti et al., 2018b ). Understanding the causes at the base of terrace failures positioning would help...

Human-Environmental Interrelationships and the Origins of Agriculture in Egypt and Sudan

Human-Environmental Interrelationships and the Origins of Agriculture in Egypt and Sudan   Reference library

Simon Holdaway and Rebecca Phillipps

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Agriculture and the Environment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020

...Planetary Science Letters , 371–372 , 163–176. Midant-Reynes, B. (2000). The prehistory of Egypt, from the first Egyptians to the first Pharaohs . Oxford: Blackwell. Nicholson, S. E. , & Flohn, H. (1980). African environmental and climatic changes and the general atmospheric circulation in Late Pleistocene and Holocene. Climatic Change , 2 , 313–348. Pennington, B. , Bunbury, J. & Hovius, N. (2016). Emergence of civilisation, changes in fluvio-deltaic style and nutrient redistribution forced by Holocene sea-level rise. Geoarchaeology , 31 , 194–210...

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