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confusion worse confounded

Complete confusion, deriving from a usage by Milton in Paradise Lost (1667).

Historical Views of Homosexuality: European Colonialism

Historical Views of Homosexuality: European Colonialism   Reference library

Robert Aldrich

The Oxford Encyclopedia of LGBT Politics and Policy

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2021
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
9,622 words

...and young men that were commonplace and accepted in Japan. The physiognomy and dress of “natives” often confounded Europeans’ notions of gender propriety and sexuality. In Ceylon, men who grew their hair long, and oiled and ornamented it with a comb, seemed unmanly, and the slight build of many of the islanders provoked Europeans to call them androgynous. Cultures elsewhere with little gender variation in clothing styles similarly caused confusion about differences between male and female. By contrast, Europeans saw black African men as dangerously...

Cognitive Approaches to Foreign Policy Analysis

Cognitive Approaches to Foreign Policy Analysis   Reference library

Aaron Rapport

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Foreign Policy Analysis

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
11,584 words

...are externally valid—can one infer the cognitive traits of foreign policy officials using results from typical individuals in an artificial setting ( Hafner-Burton et al., 2013 ; Lau & Levy, 1998 , pp. 40–41; Mintz, Redd, & Vedlitz, 2006 )? This problem may be further confounded by the alleged replication crisis in psychology, in which researchers have debated the prevalence of problematic research practices that bring the reliability of a range of findings into question ( Pashler & Wagenmakers, 2012 ; Simmons, Nelson, & Simonsohn, 2011 ). In some...

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