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confusion worse confounded

Complete confusion, deriving from a usage by Milton in Paradise Lost (1667).

Solar wind

Solar wind   Reference library

Magic Universe: A Grand Tour of Modern Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Science and technology, History of Science
Length:
3,559 words

...indicating significant changes in the radiocarbon production rate. When archaeologists used the bristlecone results to calibrate their dates, the effects were revolutionary. A cherished idea that civilization and technologies diffused outwards from Sumeria and Egypt was confounded when the corrected radiocarbon dates showed that folk in Brittany were building large stone monuments 1500 years before the first rough-stone Egyptian pyramid was constructed. As Colin Renfrew at Southampton announced in 1973 : ‘The whole diffusionist framework collapses,...

Nature and Nurture as an Enduring Tension in the History of Psychology

Nature and Nurture as an Enduring Tension in the History of Psychology   Reference library

Hunter Honeycutt

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of Modern Psychology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, History
Length:
12,089 words
Illustration(s):
2

...is neither a legitimate nor a constructive way of thinking about development. Instead, developmental analysis reveals that the terms commonly associated with nature (e.g., innate, genetic, hereditary, or instinctual) and nurture (environmental or learned) are so entwined and confounded (and often arbitrary) that their independent effects cannot be meaningfully discussed. The nature–nurture division oversimplifies developmental processes, takes too much for granted, and ultimately hinders scientific progress. Thus not only is there a lingering tension about...

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