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confusion worse confounded

Complete confusion, deriving from a usage by Milton in Paradise Lost (1667).

Empire and Imperialism

Empire and Imperialism   Reference library

Heather Streets, John E. Kicza, John P. Cann, Wim van den Doel, Aaron D. Whelchel, Patricia M. E. Lorcin, G. N. Uzoigwe, Erik Grimmer-Solem, Kirk W. Larsen, and Christopher A. Conte

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
48,169 words
Illustration(s):
1

...related to “empire,” “imperialism” refers to the ideologies held within the dominant polity that support and encourage the creation of empires. It is, in other words, the force behind empire that translates expansionist sentiment into action. “Imperialism” is frequently confounded with “colonialism,” but in fact the two terms are not synonymous. Rather, “colonialism” refers not to the driving ideology behind empire, but to the policies and practices set in motion within imperial territories in order to maintain order and to realize economic and social...

Nature and Nurture as an Enduring Tension in the History of Psychology

Nature and Nurture as an Enduring Tension in the History of Psychology   Reference library

Hunter Honeycutt

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of Modern Psychology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, History
Length:
12,089 words
Illustration(s):
2

...is neither a legitimate nor a constructive way of thinking about development. Instead, developmental analysis reveals that the terms commonly associated with nature (e.g., innate, genetic, hereditary, or instinctual) and nurture (environmental or learned) are so entwined and confounded (and often arbitrary) that their independent effects cannot be meaningfully discussed. The nature–nurture division oversimplifies developmental processes, takes too much for granted, and ultimately hinders scientific progress. Thus not only is there a lingering tension about...

Strategy

Strategy   Reference library

Joshua Rovner

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Their adaptations may be wise or foolish, but in either case they are likely to change the trajectory of war, making it difficult to sustain a coherent strategy throughout. A fundamental problem for strategists is that logical plans for linking means and ends are often confounded by interaction effects. Strategists need to think about the sequence of military actions needed to achieve some political goal, but enemy adaptation may throw that sequence completely out of whack. The situation is even more complicated when coalitions are involved. Unexpected...

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