Update
The Oxford Biblical Studies Online and Oxford Islamic Studies Online have retired. Content you previously purchased on Oxford Biblical Studies Online or Oxford Islamic Studies Online has now moved to Oxford Reference, Oxford Handbooks Online, Oxford Scholarship Online, or What Everyone Needs to Know®. For information on how to continue to view articles visit the subscriber services page.
Dismiss

You are looking at 1-13 of 13 entries  for:

  • All: Systemic art x
  • Regional and Area Studies x
clear all

View:

Overview

Systemic art

Term coined by Lawrence Alloway in 1966 to describe a type of abstract art characterized by the use of very simple standardized forms, usually geometric in character, either in a single ...

Minimalism

Minimalism   Reference library

Keith Potter

The Grove Dictionary of American Music (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Music, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,958 words

...G. Battcock , ed.: Minimal Art: a Critical Anthology (New York, 1968, London, 1969) B. Dennis : “Repetitive and Systemic Music,” MT , cxv (1974), 1036–8 M. Nyman : Experimental Music: Cage and Beyond (London and New York, 1974/ R , 2/1999) S. Reich , ed. K. Koenig : Writings about Music (Halifax, Canada, New York, and London, 1974) New York, Downtown Manhattan, SoHo: Ausstellungen, Theater, Musik, Performance, Video, Film Akademie der Kunste, 5 Sept—17 Oct 1976 (Berlin, 1976) [exhibition catalog] M. Parsons : “Systems in Art and Music,” MT , cxvii...

Blue note

Blue note i   Reference library

Gerhard Kubik

The Grove Dictionary of American Music (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Music, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
565 words

...pitch areas”. Tonemic analysis of blues singers’ concepts and behavior, in which all possible intonations together constitute the same toneme, has reconciled present-day ethnomusicological views with statements by blues singers (Kubik, 1999 ). If blue notes are considered intra-systemic as part of a non-Western tonal system, they vanish as separate entities and become those points where the deviations between western and non-Western systems of pitch are greatest. Thus, a non-Western analysis of the characteristic pitch-values prevalent in blues and jazz,...

Taliban

Taliban   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
2,011 words
Illustration(s):
2

...has undergone a resurgence, increasingly described as an “insurgency.” The insurgency exists on both sides of the Afghanistan-Pakistan border. There are many reasons offered for its success: the inability of the new Afghan state to provide materially for its citizens, rampant systemic corruption, the presence of foreign troops, the deaths of Afghan civilians at the hands of foreign troops, and the continued covert support of the Pakistani military, which believes that the Afghan state is insufficiently attuned to the needs of Pakistan. Since 2006 , Taliban...

Arab American music

Arab American music   Reference library

Kenneth S. Habib

The Grove Dictionary of American Music (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Music, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
6,176 words
Illustration(s):
4

...second (or a quartertone larger than a minor second). While the scales show a tendency for B to be raised in ascent and lowered in descent, compositional and stylistic considerations as well as characteristics of particular maqāmāt can mitigate this and dictate otherwise. The systemic relationship between the two groups of modes can be seen in part by intervallic relationships between them. For example, with 2/4 representing a half step, 3/4 a three-quarter step, and 4/4 a whole step, the stepwise intervallic content of Rāst in ascent is...

Diplomacy, Theories of

Diplomacy, Theories of   Reference library

G. R. Berridge

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...of complex knowledge, well-tried procedures, and a distinctive lexicon. What are the main theories attending it, and how do they stand up? It is perhaps useful first to break this question up into those dealing with the best way to conduct diplomacy and those focused on the systemic conditions in which diplomacy is most likely to flourish and then to consider the even broader theories that seek to place diplomacy in its general relationship to international society as a whole. The Conduct of Diplomacy.  Many of the questions that come up in discussion of...

Technology and Applied Sciences

Technology and Applied Sciences   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
3,957 words

...2003 Muslim countries spent on average less than 0.4 percent of their gross national product on research, in comparison with a world average of 2.3 percent. This statistic reflects a huge gap to be bridged, an undertaking requiring deliberate, long-term policies. The problem is systemic, and quite sensitive: the ability of Islamic countries to catch up to the West in science and technology in fact presupposes changes in their social and political structures, in order to forge a new cultural and political environment that would foster the development of science...

Jewish music

Jewish music   Reference library

Judah M. Cohen

The Grove Dictionary of American Music (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Music, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
6,079 words

...resulted in the founding of the labels JDub ( 2002–11 ), Jewish Music Group ( 2006–8 ), Modular Moods/Shemspeed ( c 2003 ), and Reboot Stereophonic/Idelsohn Society for Musical Preservation ( 2005 ), along with festivals (including the OyHoo! Festival) and efforts to create a systemic award system, including several failed attempts to create a Jewish Grammy award. On the surface these and other endeavors appeared to flame out quickly. Yet they also brought many of their participants into Jewish communal networks and subsequent long-term commitments to Jewish...

Philanthropy

Philanthropy   Reference library

Tom Brister

The Oxford Companion to American Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
3,985 words

...and “Charity Guide,” which use information technology and social networking technology to rationalize “capital aggregation” and improve outcomes and performance for those anxious to give but concerned about the effectiveness of their donations. There has also been a more radical systemic critique of philanthropy, one that questions more deeply the reasons for the need for private charity in the first place, along with the relationship of philanthropy itself to the wider society and economy. We find the beginnings of this critique in the New England of the ...

Milk

Milk   Reference library

Daniel Block, Andrew F. Smith, Joseph M. Carlin, Esther Della Reese, and Anne Mendelson

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...be widely distributed in food sources ranging from ground beef to spinach and other fresh produce. They include Campylobacter jejuni , Salmonella var. typhimurium , Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Listeria monocytogenes . All can cause either mild gastroenteritis or severe systemic infections. Public health agencies consider all raw milk capable of harboring such organisms and believe that it should be categorically banned for retail sale. (Conflicting reports suggest that for the same reason the Food and Drug Administration may soon broaden existing...

Jazz

Jazz   Reference library

Mark Tucker, Travis A. Jackson, and Travis A. Jackson

The Grove Dictionary of American Music (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Music, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
30,073 words
Illustration(s):
10

...Color lines were also crossed when black musicians were hired as featured soloists with white bands, such as Billie Holiday with Artie Shaw ( 1938 ) and Roy Eldridge with Gene Krupa ( 1941–3 ). Despite these short-term examples of integration, black musicians still faced systemic segregation and discrimination during the swing era, often hired to perform in venues where they would not be admitted as patrons. While they thus profited economically from the vogue for swing, an idiom their predecessors had largely invented in the late 1920s and early 1930s,...

Sports Training System

Sports Training System   Reference library

Bjoern CONRAD

Berkshire Encyclopedia of China

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

...the political hay to be made from athletic success is particularly appealing to China’s political leadership. Athletic success yields three forms of political dividends in particular: intensification of national unity, strengthening of international esteem, and demonstration of systemic strength. An important element in China’s unparalleled economic development, which is based on foreign direct investment to an extent, is the Western image of China as a land of limitless opportunity and economic growth. Most investors, however, are nervous by nature, and...

Education System

Education System   Reference library

Heidi A. ROSS

Berkshire Encyclopedia of China

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

...reform plan of the twenty-first century charts a twelve-year course for education aligned with the goals of social and economic development for a “harmonious, moderately prosperous society,” technology innovation, improvement of rural education and teachers’ welfare, and systemic reform of elementary, vocational, and higher education. Achieving Universal Basic Education China’s education system is anchored by the belief in the power of schooling. Surveys show that family budgets give top priority to educational expenses, followed by health and housing...

Lǔ Xùn

Lǔ Xùn (1881–1936)   Reference library

Eileen J. CHENG

The Berkshire Dictionary of Chinese Biography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
6,790 words
Illustration(s):
3

...the miserable conditions around them. Hypocritical, weak, and lacking the capacity for self-reflection, his intellectual protagonists are depicted as unreliable narrators prone to wishful thinking, creating hopeful scenarios of the future and turning a blind eye to the systemic inequities before them. The uniformly pessimistic tone of Lu Xun short stories are unlikely manifestos for “changing people’s spirits.” Rather, they reveal the persistence of the most oppressive aspects of traditional culture, the predatory nature of humans, and the difficult...

View: