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Systemic art

Term coined by Lawrence Alloway in 1966 to describe a type of abstract art characterized by the use of very simple standardized forms, usually geometric in character, either in a single ...

National Defense

National Defense   Reference library

Jari Eloranta

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
2,181 words
Illustration(s):
1

...on indirect taxes, to support the growing costs of warfare. The commercialization of warfare was accompanied by the rising importance of sea power as the European states began to build their overseas empires. States like Portugal, the Netherlands, and England became the “systemic leaders” due to their extensive fleets and commercial expansion. The early winners in the fight for world leadership were usually supported by the availability of inexpensive credit. This pattern can be perceived in England. Between 1535 and 1547 , the English defense share (military...

Russia

Russia   Reference library

Michael Bibikov, Richard Hellie, Boris N. Mironov, Gur Ofer, Jozef Konings, and Sergei Lebedev

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
15,632 words
Illustration(s):
4

...to a more conservative mode of planning, in a period later termed the era of stagnation, which lasted until after the death of Brezhnev (1982) and the rise of Gorbachev in 1985 . Attempts at partial reforms continued, but most failed because of conflicts with basic systemic principles and the system's built-in resistance to change. The year 1965 was a missed opportunity for radical reforms. A sharp rise in the price of energy on the world markets in 1973 and again in 1979 , which greatly increased export revenues, and technological...

Considering Health-Systems Constraints in Economic Evaluation in Low- and Middle-Income Settings

Considering Health-Systems Constraints in Economic Evaluation in Low- and Middle-Income Settings   Reference library

Anna Vassall, Fiammetta Bozzani, and Kara Hanson

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Health Economics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
10,135 words
Illustration(s):
6

...influence current actions ( Atun, 2012 ; de Savigny, 2009 ). Health-System Constraints and Feasibility. As the case for large-scale investment in essential health benefit packages in LMICs emerged in the early 2000s, health-system analysts began to consider whether there were systemic constraints to scaling up services that would restrict a health sector’s ability to meet global health targets. Hanson et al. ( 2003 ) defined health-systems constraints as obstacles that “might affect the feasibility and returns from rapid expansion of health services” and...

Machine Tools Industry

Machine Tools Industry   Reference library

Peter B. Meyer and John K. Brown

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
6,588 words
Illustration(s):
2

...and productive efficiency. In sum, their innovations in products and in systematic production methods transformed the leading British and American tool builders into the first generation of professional mechanical engineers. Armory Practice and Interchangeable Parts Among systemic mechanical engineering practices, U.S. engineers led the world in precision standards of metalworking to make consumer products in large quantities using interchangeable parts. Machine tools played an important if often misunderstood role in the evolution of American mass...

Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) in Healthcare Decision-Making

Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) in Healthcare Decision-Making   Reference library

Paul Hansen and Nancy Devlin

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Health Economics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
9,667 words
Illustration(s):
1

.... Los Angeles, CA: SAGE. Health Foundation . (2018). STAR: A tool for commissioners. Johnson, S. , Naden, R. , Fransen, J. , Van Den Hoogen, F. , Pope, J. , Baron, M. , … Gabrielli, A. (2014). Multicriteria decision analysis methods with 1000Minds for developing systemic sclerosis classification criteria. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology , 67 (6), 706–714. Kahneman, K. (2011). Thinking, fast and slow (pp. 209–244). New York, NY: Farrar, Straus and Giroux. Keeney, R. , & Raiffa, H. (1993). Decisions with multiple objectives: Preferences...

Banking

Banking   Reference library

Johannes M. Renger, Michaël North, and Charles W. Calomiris

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
13,709 words
Illustration(s):
1

...exchange to facilitate the circulation of each other's notes. These banks also were the first to experiment with explicit option clauses in bank notes. These controversial clauses were outlawed in Scotland in 1765 , but they had set the important precedent that during times of systemic crisis, the legal requirement of convertibility of bank debts on demand could be suspended. This became a common practice throughout the world by the nineteenth century, although the legal authority charged with determining whether to permit suspension of convertibility varied. ...

Japan

Japan   Reference library

Mark J. Ravina, Susan B. Hanley, Gary R. Saxonhouse, and Peter Duus

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
8,978 words
Illustration(s):
2

...aid playing a decisive role. Just as with the government's industrial policies, there are also several careful statistical studies that find main banks altering the behavior of the firms that were their long-term borrowers without necessarily improving their performance. Systemic Evolution and Japan's Economic Distress Inevitably, much of the analysis of the distinctive economic institutions characterizing Japan's era of high economic growth between 1955 and 1973 occurred after 1973 when these institutions were already undergoing significant...

The Emerging Environmental Economic Implications of the Urban Water-Energy-Food (WEF) Nexus: Water Reclamation with Resource Recovery in China, India, and Europe

The Emerging Environmental Economic Implications of the Urban Water-Energy-Food (WEF) Nexus: Water Reclamation with Resource Recovery in China, India, and Europe   Reference library

Daphne Gondhalekar, Hong-Ying Hu, Zhuo Chen, Shresth Tayal, Maksud Bekchanov, Johannes Sauer, Maria Vrachioli, Mohammed Al-Azzawi, Hannah Patalong, Hans-Dietrich Uhl, Martin Grambow, and Jörg E. Drewes

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Environmental Economics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics, Environment
Length:
14,821 words
Illustration(s):
2

...of this urban growth. However, cities often have limited capacities to deal with these complex challenges comprehensively. Hence, they urgently require innovative and practicable solutions rending high-impact outcomes that focus on key entry points in cities. They also need to systemically address complex social, economic, and environmental issues and be accompanied by facilitating methods and tools. Hence, innovative approaches are urgently needed. Figure 1. Conceptual framework of the water–energy–food nexus approach. The water–energy–food (WEF) nexus approach...

Benefit Transfer for Ecosystem Services

Benefit Transfer for Ecosystem Services   Reference library

Kevin J. Boyle and Christopher F. Parmeter

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Environmental Economics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics, Environment
Length:
11,211 words
Illustration(s):
3

...j β + d s j δ + q s j γ + m s j α + u s + ε s j where β , δ , γ , and α are vectors of parameters to be estimated to discern the impact that research methods, site characteristics, demographics, and policy changes have on estimated values, respectively, u s captures systemic study level effects, and ε s j is a standard i i d observation-specific error with constant variance. It is through the inclusion of the biophysical (captured through x ), personal characteristics (captured through d ), and ecosystem services values (captured through...

Valuation of Biodiversity

Valuation of Biodiversity   Reference library

Bartosz Bartkowski

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Environmental Economics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics, Environment
Length:
13,004 words
Illustration(s):
6

...Eck, N. J. , & Waltman, L. (2010). Software survey: VOSviewer, a computer program for bibliometric mapping . Scientometrics , 84 (2), 523–538. Vogel, H.-J. , Bartke, S. , Daedlow, K. , Helming, K. , Kögel-Knabner, I. , Lang, B. , . . . Wollschläger, U. (2018). A systemic approach for modeling soil functions . SOIL , 4 (1), 83–92. Voigt, A. , & Wurster, D. (2015). Does diversity matter? The experience of urban nature’s diversity: Case study and cultural concept . Ecosystem Services , 12 , 200–208. Weikard, H.-P. (2002). Diversity functions...

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