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Overview

Systemic art

Term coined by Lawrence Alloway in 1966 to describe a type of abstract art characterized by the use of very simple standardized forms, usually geometric in character, either in a single ...

vodka

vodka   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Spirits and Cocktails

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2021
Subject:
Society and culture, Cookery, Food, and Drink
Length:
2,987 words
Illustration(s):
1

...the traditionally self-sufficient Russian village had been obliterated—replaced with an entire system of gentry distillers, merchants, and government bureaucrats that propagated and profited from the peasants’ drunkenness. While the system produced widespread impoverishment, systemic corruption, and entrenched autocratic governance, it was also a boon for the early tsarist empire. As Moscow’s capacity to extract resources grew, so too did its capacity to build its military, expand, and ultimately broadcast its power across vast swaths of Eurasia, ultimately...

Colombia

Colombia   Reference library

The Continuum Complete International Encyclopedia of Sexuality

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
17,228 words
Illustration(s):
1

...also introduced modifications of the human sexuality functioning model originally proposed by William Masters and Virginia Johnson and later enriched by Helen Singer Kaplan . Alzate's premise was to “seek out and responsibly enjoy pleasure.” Presently, there are no other systemic studies by Colombians in the field of sexology other than those provided by Alzate. At the international level, publications by Colombians in the area of human sexuality are very scarce, almost nonexistent. However, there have been other unpublished works that originated in...

South Korea

South Korea   Reference library

The Continuum Complete International Encyclopedia of Sexuality

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
29,123 words
Illustration(s):
1

...have become very important in national policy. Since 1994 , the Korean Women's Development Institute ( 2000 ) has published Women's Statistical Yearbook in order to review and analyze the existing social statistics and indicators about the status of women in comprehensive and systemic ways. The women's social indicators system in the book is composed of 36 subareas, 98 detailed concerns, and 435 indicators under eight major categories: population, family/household, education, employment/economic activities, health, social welfare, social activities, and...

United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland   Reference library

The Continuum Complete International Encyclopedia of Sexuality

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
37,226 words
Illustration(s):
1

...approaches include the traditional medical approach using medication, intracavernous injections, VCDs, and so on. Psychotherapeutic treatments are usually based on the behavioral model proposed by William Masters and Virginia Johnson , although increasingly with cognitive and systemic strategies incorporated. Some workers continue to use a dynamic model of working with patients. Increasingly, couple therapy is adopted incorporating both relationship and sexual therapy. Surrogacy services are available from the Birmingham clinic run by Martin Cole ....

United States of America

United States of America   Reference library

The Continuum Complete International Encyclopedia of Sexuality

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
234,746 words
Illustration(s):
2

...and support from within the client's culture ( Christensen 1988 ; McGoldrick , Pearce , & Giordano 1982 ). The therapist may need to focus, not just on the individual, but also on the institutions and sexist/racist policies that may be affecting the client adversely (systemically induced dysfunction). ( End of update by P. B. Koch )] [Sexuality of Menopausal Women Patricia Barthalow Koch [ Update 1998 : As America's baby boomers experience mid-life and older age, the sexual concerns of peri- and postmenopausal women have gained greater attention. Older...

Contemporary Asian American Art

Contemporary Asian American Art   Reference library

Laura Kina

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Asian American Literature and Culture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Society and culture, Literature, Literary theory and cultural studies
Length:
12,679 words
Illustration(s):
28

...war they face on a daily basis.” 63 Crafting Resistance: Art and Social Justice in the Era of Trump With the rise of overt racism, misogynistic, and anti-immigrant rhetoric that followed the 2016 US presidential election (e.g., Executive Order 13769—the so-called Muslim ban and the Trump administration family separation policy), Asian American artists and their communities were galvanized to craft creative forms of resistance and consider how they might use the arts to disrupt systemic racism. Figure 21. Tomie Arai, Double Happiness , installation...

Filipino American Visual Culture

Filipino American Visual Culture   Reference library

Sarita Echavez See

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Asian American Literature and Culture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020

...and high school students that symptomatizes the kind of spectacular monumental achievement—hundreds of cast members and thousands of rehearsal time—that both is made possible and contained by multiculturalist programming and funding structures that stop far short of the systemic changes necessary to desegregate the curriculum and pedagogy of the university. 51 So Silva’s reference to the PCN implicitly begs the questions: Does the mural—imposing as it is—achieve the kind of presence and permanence that the artist seeks? And, if so, how far-reaching is...

Asian American Queer Performance

Asian American Queer Performance   Reference library

Vivian L. Huang

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Asian American Literature and Culture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020

...American queer performance practice may be thought of as a mode of doing that flags the relationship between institutional racial, gendered, and sexual violence and the workings of race, gender, and sexuality in quotidian intimate realms that are often understood outside of systemic parlance. By “feminist and antiheteronormative practices” of sociality, a wealth of feminist and queer scholarship is invoked that critiques the normalization of patrilineal, bioreproductive families, ones normalized by institutional legibility that segments or apportions...

The Posthuman Subject in/of Asian American Literature

The Posthuman Subject in/of Asian American Literature   Reference library

Michelle N. Huang

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Asian American Literature and Culture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020

...posthumanism serves as an alibi for further denial of humanity to these same people.” 3 Shih’s skepticism is not isolated or unfounded—the “denial of humanity” she cites is a primary catalyst for Asian American studies, a discipline that arose in the 1960s to contest the systemic disenfranchisement of a racialized group. Yet Asian American writers who reach for scientific and technological paradigms that rearrange the boundaries of space, time, and human subjectivity show that posthumanism and Asian American literature are already deep in conversation...

Asian American Ecocriticism

Asian American Ecocriticism   Reference library

Anita Mannur and Casey Kuhajda

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Asian American Literature and Culture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020

...California. By historicizing Labor Day in California, she places Wrack and Ruin ’s dialogue with issues of labor, race, and multiculturalism in a broader context. Though laborers themselves are mostly absent from Wrack and Ruin , the text shows an awareness of the historic and systemic conditions that shape the lives of farmworkers in California. For the racialized farmer, memory, both literally and figuratively, is written in the dirt. Traces of seasons, crops, and cultivators past create the physical external landscape of the farm, just as they shape the...

Filipino American Literature

Filipino American Literature   Reference library

Jeffrey Arellano Cabusao

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Asian American Literature and Culture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Society and culture, Literature, Literary theory and cultural studies
Length:
11,564 words
Illustration(s):
2

...diaspora of approximately twelve million Filipinos dispersed across the globe. Aiiieeeee!: An Anthology of Asian-American Writers is regarded as a landmark text for its attempt to define the parameters and aesthetics of an Asian American literary tradition of resistance against systemic racism and US orientalist discourse. 2 In addition, Aiiieeeee! must also be acknowledged for its pioneering—though problematic—attempt to define the category of Filipino American literature, with its separate introduction to the subject written by Oscar Peñaranda, Serafin...

Milk

Milk   Reference library

Daniel Block, Andrew F. Smith, Joseph M. Carlin, Esther Della Reese, and Anne Mendelson

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...be widely distributed in food sources ranging from ground beef to spinach and other fresh produce. They include Campylobacter jejuni , Salmonella var. typhimurium , Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Listeria monocytogenes . All can cause either mild gastroenteritis or severe systemic infections. Public health agencies consider all raw milk capable of harboring such organisms and believe that it should be categorically banned for retail sale. (Conflicting reports suggest that for the same reason the Food and Drug Administration may soon broaden existing...

Building Asian Canadian Literary Studies

Building Asian Canadian Literary Studies   Reference library

Eleanor Ty

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Asian American Literature and Culture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020

...Forms of identities that can intersect include gender, race, social class, ethnicity, nationality, sexual orientation, religion, age, and mental and physical disability. In the second decade of the 21st century , many works by Asian Canadians demonstrate their awareness that systemic injustice and social inequality occur on multiple levels. Kim Fu’s For Today I Am a Boy looks at the ways that ethnicity, social class, gender, and sexuality are mutually constitutive and become oppressive for the protagonist, Peter Huang, the only son of the family. In one...

Intersections of Arab American and Asian American Literature

Intersections of Arab American and Asian American Literature   Reference library

Carol W. N. Fadda

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Asian American Literature and Culture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020

...Born Chinese ( 2006 ), D. H. Melhem’s Rest in Love ( 1975 ), Evelyn Shakir’s Remember Me To Lebanon: Stories of Lebanese Women in America ( 2007 ), Lalami’s The Other Americans ( 2019 ), and Bao Phi’s Thousand Star Hotel ( 2017 ). Even though such alienation has been systemic and consistent since the first waves of Arab and Asian immigrants started arriving in the United States, it has reached extremes in the aftermath of specific historical and political events, most notably Pearl Harbor and 9/11. Important resonances exist between these two...

The Vietnam War in Film

The Vietnam War in Film   Reference library

Sylvia Shin Huey Chong

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Asian American Literature and Culture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020

... films ( 1984 , 1985 , 1988 ). One acclaimed film sympathetic to returning veterans was Coming Home ( 1978 ). While it did depict the political dimensions of the veteran’s suffering, it also sentimentalized that suffering into a personal ordeal and triumph, ignoring the more systemic critique offered by documentaries such as Winter Soldier . Appearing over a decade later, Born on the Fourth of July ( 1989 ) was the second of Oliver Stone’s Vietnam trilogy, which included Platoon ( 1986 ) and Heaven and Earth ( 1993 ). It was based on the autobiography...

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