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Systemic art

Term coined by Lawrence Alloway in 1966 to describe a type of abstract art characterized by the use of very simple standardized forms, usually geometric in character, either in a single ...

mind–body problem

mind–body problem   Reference library

Jaegwon Kim

The Oxford Companion to Philosophy (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
1,674 words

...a more scientific understanding of our nature. Thus, the standard eliminativist argument begins with the premiss that vernacular (‘folk’) psychology—in particular, the psychology of beliefs, desires, and other ‘propositional attitudes’—is infested with massive and irremediable systemic errors and gaps, and concludes that it will be made obsolete as the scientific—in particular, neuroscientific—understanding of our behaviour continues to advance. Beliefs and desires will ultimately meet the fate that befell phlogiston and magnetic effluvia, the forgotten posits...

Eco-Art and Criticism

Eco-Art and Criticism   Reference library

Amanda Boetzkes

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
3,327 words
Illustration(s):
1

...of nature and the appreciation of art, but also recast this dichotomy as one in which the technological reproduction of nature mediates a sense of the systemic operations of an ecosystem. In similar developments, Eco-art in the twenty-first century has dovetailed with new media practices and has extended its domain of interest to include the science and visual culture of bio-art, genetics, artificial life, computer code, and robotics. [ See also Animal Aesthetics ; Conceptual Art ; Geoaesthetics ; Nature ; Public Art ; Science ; and Sublime . ] Bi...

Luhmann, Niklas

Luhmann, Niklas (1927–1998)   Reference library

Francis Halsall

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
3,581 words

...on truth and falsehood. The art system, too, has communications specific to itself, which take the forms of instances of art. Art. In Luhmann’s view, art is relative to the system of art. Hence, without an art system to observe it, art would not exist; and without artistic forms, there would be no artistic media within which they are manifest. This autonomy of this system occurred with the more general functional differentiation of society in modernity and coincides with the emergence of artistic Romanticism. In talking about art, Luhmann preferred not to use...

Hegel, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich

Hegel, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich   Reference library

Stephen Houlgate, Martin Donougho, and Fred Rush

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
11,081 words

...the past to current prospects for art—from museum curator to artist-critic—one might well ask what normative standards remain once full self-reflexivity is achieved and there is no longer any occulted content to be divined and presented. Dieter Henrich ( 1979 ) has argued that Hegel’s diagnosis of art’s loss of religious content prefigures humanist tendencies in modernism. Yet, if it is to avoid parody or else some kind of conceptual art, what shape does its productive activity assume? Others advocate muting Hegel’s systemics in favor either of the promise of...

Minimal Art

Minimal Art   Reference library

Frances Colpitt

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
4,667 words

...in New York, followed by Systemic Painting at the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum in 1967 . Developments were summarized in 1968 by the Minimal Art exhibition at the Gemeentemuseum in The Hague and the publication of Gregory Battcock’s still valuable book of foundational texts, Minimal Art: A Critical Anthology ( Battcock, 1995 ), including Richard Wollheim’s essay, “Minimal Art,” ( Wollheim, 1965 ) from which the name was drawn (other descriptors proposed for the movement included structurist, literalist, ABC art, and cool art). Because of its seemingly...

Autonomy

Autonomy   Reference library

Casey Haskins, Peter Bürger, Mary Devereaux, and K. Michael Hays

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
15,347 words

...hierarchy of art-historical importance. An unfair and unacknowledged gender bias operates not only in the way art gets evaluated, but also, feminist critics claim, in the way art gets defined. Because, for the formalist, art means “fine art,” certain kinds of artistic activity (e.g., pottery making, quilting, and weaving), certain materials (e.g., cloth rather than paint), and certain artistic ends (e.g., practical or decorative rather than formal ones) tend to get placed outside the designation of art altogether. These categories of “applied art” or craft are...

Geoaesthetics

Geoaesthetics   Reference library

William L. Fox

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
3,301 words
Illustration(s):
1

...considered both strategic and scientific documents, but also fine art for sale to patrons. The rise of Impressionism and then abstract art saw topographical paintings and photographs devalued by the art world as mere mapping images. This continued until the 1960s, when art historians began to interpret geographic works in the context of European postcolonialism. A much-admired text of such reinterpretation was Bernard Smith’s seminal examination of the cognitive biases present in exploration art, European Vision and the South Pacific , published in 1959 ....

Anti-Aesthetic

Anti-Aesthetic   Reference library

Monique Roelofs

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
3,779 words

...a historical transformation in twentieth-century visual art, Arthur Danto ( 2003 ) points out that “The Age of Aesthetics” drew to a close with Duchamp’s recognition of the “deep disconnection between art and aesthetics in his readymades of 1913–1915 .” Danto takes these works to have shown that beauty represents merely one among many aesthetic options for art (p. 45). The language of closure, disconnection, and abdication here expresses a shifting balance between dimensions of aesthetics and art. In a reading of Hélio Oiticica’s Parangolés , Anna...

Information Theory

Information Theory   Reference library

Meredith Hoy

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
3,677 words
Illustration(s):
2

...complex formal structures that evoke a particular sense of phenomenological pleasure. Lev Manovich ( 2007 ) has identified an “aesthetic of complexity” unfolding in certain strains of digital art. Although Miebach’s sculptures confound the urge for transparency and the immediate legibility sought after within traditional information visualization practices, the systemic complexity of Miebach’s works reveal a kind of informatic jouissance , the pure pleasure generated by the complex structure of information. Immaterial flows are transformed into material form...

Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von

Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von (1749–1832)   Reference library

The Dictionary of Eighteenth-Century German Philosophers

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
3,382 words

... ( 1771 ), Lambert had outlined a general systems theory in which he defined the conditions of perseverance for a systemic relation between elements using the terms maximum/minimum (unstable/stable equilibrium), completeness of the number of elements and homology (‘Durchgängigkeit’). This means that the elements of a system, nothwithstanding their diversity and divergence, can be interpreted only as functions of the systemic totality (Metzger 2002 , chap. 2.3). Herder, who had cited Lambert in 1767 , dynamized this theory that Lambert had focused...

Bourdieu, Pierre

Bourdieu, Pierre   Reference library

Paul Mattick and Loïc Wacquant

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
5,248 words

...also Ideology ; Photography ; and Taste: Modern and Recent History . ] Bibliography Works by Bourdieu L’amour de l’art, les musées d’art et leur public . Written with Alain Darbel and Dominique Schnapper . Paris: Éditions de Minuit, 1966. Rev. ed., 1969. Translated by Caroline Beattie and Nick Merriman as The Love of Art: European Art Museums and Their Public (Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1991). Un art moyen, essai sur les usages sociaux de la photographie . Written with L. Boltanski , R. Castel , J.-C. Chamboredon , and ...

Giedion, Sigfried

Giedion, Sigfried (1888–1968)   Reference library

Detlef Mertins

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
3,204 words

...transformed their images into figures of an optical unconscious capable of dialectically exploding the phantasmagoric cultural production of industrial capitalism. Although Giedion’s space-time attempted to model the systemic form of modernity so that it could be generalized into the fabric of everyday life, he took individual works of art and architecture as working toward it and at the same time already embodying it proleptically. He considered these artistic symbols in the Romantic sense, capable of mediating the antinomies of modernity (inner/outer,...

Ontology of Art

Ontology of Art   Reference library

Joseph Margolis, Gregory Currie, Julie Van Camp, and Saul Fisher

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
11,270 words

...of art. But something along the lines indicated here seems to have the best chance of achieving simplicity and generality while respecting those of our intuitions about the nature of art that are robust under philosophical reflection. Bibliography Currie, Gregory . An Ontology of Art . New York: St. Martin’s, 1989. Currie, Gregory . “Work and Text.” Mind 100 (1991): 325–340. Danto, Arthur C. The Transfiguration of the Commonplace: A Philosophy of Art . Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1981. Goodman, Nelson . Languages of Art: An...

Modernism

Modernism   Reference library

Johanna Drucker, David Kolb, Leon Botstein, Deborah Jowitt, Randall Stevenson, Chika Okeke-Agulu, Aida Yuen Wong, and Sonal Khullar

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
29,028 words
Illustration(s):
4

...Islamic Art . Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 1997. Beier, Ulli . Contemporary Art in Africa . New York: Praeger, 1968. Camden Arts Centre , ed. Contemporary African Art . London: Studio International, 1970. Deliss, Clémentine , ed. Seven Stories About Modern Art in Africa . Paris: Flammarion, 1995. Fanon, Frantz . “On National Culture.” In Wretched of the Earth , pp. 167–189. New York: Grove, 1966. Fosu, Kojo . 20th Century Art of Africa . Zaria, Nigeria: Gaskiya, 1986. Hassan, Salah . “The Modernist Experience in African Art: Visual...

Black Aesthetics

Black Aesthetics   Reference library

Paul C. Taylor and Sylvia Wynter

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
13,502 words

... evolved/nonevolved schema would lead to the systemic stigmatization of the cultural creations of sub-Saharan Africa and of its New World diaspora. They too were to be stigmatized as nonevolved, therefore as “backward,” creations of the lowest of, in Darwin’s terms, the “lower races” ( Darwin, 1981 , Vol. II, p. 327). Within the hegemonic context of this principle of classification and its essentialized equation, therefore, all precursor attempts of Black writing and literary movements to grapple with the systemic negation instituting of and by this...

Photography

Photography   Reference library

Joel Snyder, Alan Trachtenberg, Patrick Maynard, Richard Shiff, Todd Cronan, and Matthew Biro

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
21,671 words
Illustration(s):
2

...industrial art, attempts at casting specific kinds of photographs as works of art began in the late 1880s in England, France, Germany, and the United States. Peter Henry Emerson, a British physician and photographer, initiated a fine art photography movement in 1889 that he labeled “naturalistic” photography. Emerson’s original position, which was adopted by others who followed his lead, maintained that a photograph could be a work of art, irrespective of its genetics, if it occasioned “aesthetic pleasure” in the viewer (although to qualify as art, the work...

Originality

Originality   Reference library

Richard Shiff and Françoise Meltzer

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
8,308 words

...each other, redefining the previous terms in what is purported to be a new way. Hence, criticism partakes both in judgment and in its very nature, in the myth of originality. The anxiety of being influenced (the Oedipal problem and so on) is but one symptom within the larger systemic disorder that one might call a metaphysics of origin. Since this essay was first written, however, the advent of computers has done much to complicate the notion of originality and the ownership of intellectual ideas. When the historian Doris Kearns Goodwin was accused (correctly)...

Caribbean Aesthetics

Caribbean Aesthetics   Reference library

Antonio Benítez-Rojo and R. Kelly Washbourne

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
3,209 words

...define the cultural field of the area in terms of binary oppositions, such as dominant culture/dominated culture, popular culture/elitist culture, culture of the colonizer/culture of the colonized, dependent culture/sovereign culture, and so forth (Frantz Fanon). Moreover, the systemic method of analysis, adopted with nationalistic goals, defined the culture of the Caribbean as “new,” granted that, given the rapid disappearance of the aborigine, the men and women who arrived on these islands and produced, through the process of criollization, the national...

Hölderlin, Friedrich

Hölderlin, Friedrich (1770–1843)   Reference library

The Dictionary of Eighteenth-Century German Philosophers

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
3,527 words

...principle, generates his own god from the given historical and intellectual relations in the sphere of life. The experience of this epiphany of a pervasive correlation in the sphere (‘sphere’, ‘pervasive’, ‘correlation’ are Herder's and, originally, Johann Heinrich Lambert 's systemic concepts) creates a more infinite satisfaction in the individual and causes repetition of the experience in the individual's imagination. Since this image must use the elements of the sphere in which the experience was made, it will be ‘intellectual-historical, i.e. mythical’....

Television

Television   Reference library

Horace Newcomb

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
7,297 words

...no single definition or set of terms can gather or control the power and significance of this most ubiquitous entity. Indeed, in this tendency to complicate singly focused approaches, television has also become the site at which various theories and methods—not to say larger systemic constructions such as “the social sciences” or “the humanities” or “critical theory”—have been forced to recognize shortcomings and attempt conversation, if not always conjunction, with others. Moreover, the difficulties posed by television’s complexities are further greatly...

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