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Systemic art

Term coined by Lawrence Alloway in 1966 to describe a type of abstract art characterized by the use of very simple standardized forms, usually geometric in character, either in a single ...

The Discursive and Material Construction of Latina Sexuality

The Discursive and Material Construction of Latina Sexuality   Reference library

Bernadine Marie Hernández

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latina and Latino Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020

...more mundane operations of supervision.” 58 This constant monitoring of the women creates a systemic male gaze, making them always open to the particular labor and appearance standards, with assault being closely intertwined with production. So ultimately, the “right look” not only points to the visual rhetoric of the shop floor and product but also to how proper the factory women look through labor control. In this setup, the women are the main subjects of the systemic incitement of the desire in production through their sexuality. 59 This means that...

War and Its Impact on Central American-American Literature

War and Its Impact on Central American-American Literature   Reference library

Tatiana Argüello

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latina and Latino Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020

...echoed the civil wars in their countries of origin. Detective Fiction and Nonfiction: Denouncing the Crime of War and Corrupt Institutions Second-generation Central American-Americans Francisco Goldman and Marcos Mc Peek Villatoro incorporated the past of war, impunity, and systemic violence that had inflicted the Central American history into their writings. Some of their books of fiction and nonfiction participate in the crime novel genre. This is in tune with the tendency for Latina/o and Chicana/o writers to use this genre to inquire about...

US Latina/os and the White Imagination

US Latina/os and the White Imagination   Reference library

Lee Bebout

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latina and Latino Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020

...students of color can learn their worth through the values of whiteness, they can move from societal victim to agents of their own destiny, a narrative move that elides the impact of systemic inequalities. 30 While highlighting white goodness, these depictions either render Latina/os without agency or provide a “bootstrap” story wherein all that is needed to combat systemic inequality is a little “grit.” Other films use violence toward Latina/os to figure the merciless nature of their antagonists. In the opening scene of Tombstone ( 1993 ), Curly Bill...

Literary Representations of Migration

Literary Representations of Migration   Reference library

Marisel Moreno

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latina and Latino Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020

...Red Hen Press, 2013), 29. 40. See González, Harvest of Empire , 129. 41. For a study of Archila’s poetry see Marisel Moreno, “ The ‘Art of Witness’ in US Central American Cultural Production: An Analysis of William Archila’s The Art of Exile and Alma Leiva’s Celdas ,” Latino Studies 15, no. 3 (Fall 2017): 287–308. 42. William Archila, The Art of Exile (Tempe, AZ: Bilingual Press, 2009), 25. 43. Archila, The Art of Exile , 25–26. 44. Guatemalan American Maya Chinchilla’s, The Cha Cha Files: A Chapina Poética (San Francisco, Kórima Press, 2014);...

Cuadros, Gil

Cuadros, Gil   Reference library

Rafael Pérez-Torres

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latina and Latino Literature

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020

...be left to the cultural death of abjections, however, Cuadros’s work serves to signal how the framework of “long-term survivor” is nothing new to populations overexposed to extreme conditions of poverty and violence, especially those during the Age of Reagan at the height of the systemic shrinking of the welfare state in the mid- to late 1980s. In light of this framework, Guzmán argues one cannot understand the AIDS epidemic without accounting for the racial logics that undergird the retelling of its history. Cuadros’s aesthetic form of dark ambivalence calls...

New Mexico Newspapers

New Mexico Newspapers   Reference library

Vanessa Fonseca-Chávez

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latina and Latino Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020

...have always occupied a central place in New Mexico cultural and identity practices. However, even prior to the territorial period, residents of this region faced an uphill battle to assert the very rights that were guaranteed by the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, which were systemically denied in favor of assimilation and erasure. The New Mexico state constitution of 1912 in many ways reiterated the promises of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo and included language that favored bilingualism, allowing Hispanic New Mexicans to retain their primary language while...

Currents in Dominican American Literature

Currents in Dominican American Literature   Reference library

Nancy Kang and Silvio Torres-Saillant

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latina and Latino Literature

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020

...that blends the realms of the fantastic and the sublime with the mundane, petty, abject, and the pitiable. Among his more prevalent themes are tensions within immigrant families across generations both on and off the island of Hispaniola; different forms of personal and systemic violence that influence the coming-of-age process; the struggle for masculinity within and beyond inherited and toxic paradigms of machismo ; the difficulty of finding and sustaining reciprocal love; the plight of the undocumented, disrespected, and often overworked immigrant;...

Masculinity and Machismo in US Latinx Literature

Masculinity and Machismo in US Latinx Literature   Reference library

Ricardo L. Ortiz

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latina and Latino Literature

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020

...… a father’s curse … the most terrible thing on earth.” On the rare occasion, however, when “the mother was a strong character,” he avers, “she could very well receive the same sort of respect as the father.” 2 Paredes characteristically balances aggregate descriptions of systemic aspects of the social order with anecdotal asides, as one might expect from his more qualitative ethnographical methodology; but he leaves no room for doubt that for the vast majority of women in the early US-Mexico borderlands, life was lived at the behest and for the pleasure...

Central American-American Feminisms

Central American-American Feminisms   Reference library

Yajaira M. Padilla

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latina and Latino Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020

...and tragic story of Aura Rosa Pavón, a lesbian from a small rural town whose murder made national headlines in Nicaragua in 1999 and garnered the attention of international LGBT and human rights activists. This fictional work likewise addresses the topic of violence and systemic oppression against LGBT individuals in Central America, doing so by way of the transnational perspective of a Nicaraguan American narrator. Influences from the United States The theory-making and feminist praxis at the center of Central American-American feminisms has been heavily...

The Presence of Coloniality in Central American-American Fictions

The Presence of Coloniality in Central American-American Fictions   Reference library

Oriel María Siu

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latina and Latino Literature

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020

...and fear of the king is so engrained in the culture of the kingdom that it helps maintain the governing structures of power intact. Despite the advent of “modern times” evinced by the use of cellular phones and other technological devices among Cartago’s people, it is clear that systemic change is impossible in this kingdom. Despite his long absence, Germán is also, still, unwelcome. The novel ends when Germán kisses his father, making the king suddenly return from that mysterious “más allá,” allowing him to regain his mental health. Germán leaves the palace soon...

Radio and the (Re)Construction of Maya Identity in the Diaspora

Radio and the (Re)Construction of Maya Identity in the Diaspora   Reference library

Alicia Ivonne Estrada

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latina and Latino Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020

...19 José’s reflection records the violence experienced by Maya survivors as well as the emotional memory , to use African American writer Toni Morrison’s term, produced by the genocide. It similarly provides a genealogy of his family’s forced displacements as a result of the systemic violence waged against Mayas. Noting from his marginal place in the diaspora, José, who shares his grandfather’s name, denounces the elder’s persecution and forced dislocation. His pained voice further stresses the multigenerational trauma that continues to shape his family and...

Puerto Rican Nationhood, Ethnicity, and Literature

Puerto Rican Nationhood, Ethnicity, and Literature   Reference library

Frances R. Aparicio

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latina and Latino Literature

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020

...and emotional consequences of these family moves. When I Was Puerto Rican begins with a move to a small house in the rural community of Macún, then on to Santurce and back, then to El Mangle, and eventually to New York City. Not only are these displacements the result of the systemic poverty in which she and her family lived, but also of the gendered inequalities between her father and her mother. During her father’s prolonged absences, the mother was responsible for all of the children. 29 While the title of this book was initially polemical among island readers...

Chicana/o Gang Narratives

Chicana/o Gang Narratives   Reference library

José Navarro

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latina and Latino Literature

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020

...from which the Chicana/o gang member and the gang autobiography emerge. It should be noted that the Hollywood gangster film is one of the oldest film genres and that it has often detailed the emergence of gangs among white ethnic groups on the East Coast as a response to systemic discrimination and Prohibition. Bryan Foy’s Lights of New York ( 1928 ), for example, was the first full-length “all-talkie” Hollywood film; like other gangster films, it follows the generic Hollywood gangster formula from start to finish. Richard Barsam and Dave Monahan note...

Ruiz de Burton, María Amparo

Ruiz de Burton, María Amparo   Reference library

Beatrice Pita

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latina and Latino Literature

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020

...strategies that seek to forestall or resist what she terms “the hydra-headed monster” in both its economic and cultural manifestations. Ruiz de Burton’s critiques of the United States go beyond seeing the problem as one of “bad apples”; rather, she analyzes the problems as systemic and points to the supra-individual forces at work, issuing her critique at the level of policy and politics, profit and propaganda. Mexico’s loss of the Southwest and the treatment of its people stand out in Ruiz de Burton’s mind and work as a watershed event, a caveat of the...

Decoloniality and Identity in Central American Latina and Latino Literature

Decoloniality and Identity in Central American Latina and Latino Literature   Reference library

Arturo Arias

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latina and Latino Literature

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020

...By this he means the nonemployment of rural and urban workers in their home countries, thus forcing them to immigrate to the United States to survive. A result of the globalized changes of the 1990s was that these new processes, and their diasporic movements, constituted a systemic and intrinsic segment of broader relations ensnared in what Latino scholar José David Saldívar has labeled “the global division of labor, racial and ethnic hierarchy, identity formation, and Eurocentric epistemologies.” This is why Saldivar speaks of a “globalized coloniality.”...

The Pasts and Futures of Latina/o Indigeneities

The Pasts and Futures of Latina/o Indigeneities   Reference library

Simón Ventura Trujillo

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latina and Latino Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020

...communities of sovereign rights to land, language, and cultural difference. In this light, the emergence of the Chicana/o movement in the 1960s and 1970s encapsulates and complicates the historical trajectories of Indigenous racialization in the hemisphere. Faced with systemic racism, sexism, xenophobia, and class exploitation in work, housing, and education, Mexican American communities across the US–Mexico borderlands began to rethink their historical relation to the political structures and social identities imposed over the duration of US...

From Nationalist Movements to Transnational Solidarities: Comparative and Pan-Latina/o Literary Studies

From Nationalist Movements to Transnational Solidarities: Comparative and Pan-Latina/o Literary Studies   Reference library

Marta Caminero-Santangelo

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latina and Latino Literature

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020

...died”), the poem suggests the inculcated subservience of the working-class urban population, the “lavaplatos / porters messenger boys / factory workers maids stock clerks / shipping clerks assistant mailroom / assistant, assistant assistant” who “never went on strike” despite systemic underpayment. There is no way out of the circular repetition of work other than death; the personas of the poem do not know how to engage in resistance. 11 Notably, both in “Puerto Rican Obituary” (implicitly) and in the early texts borne out of the Chicana/o farmworkers’ strike...

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