Update
The Oxford Biblical Studies Online and Oxford Islamic Studies Online have retired. Content you previously purchased on Oxford Biblical Studies Online or Oxford Islamic Studies Online has now moved to Oxford Reference, Oxford Handbooks Online, Oxford Scholarship Online, or What Everyone Needs to Know®. For information on how to continue to view articles visit the subscriber services page.
Dismiss

You are looking at 1-20 of 21 entries  for:

  • All: Systemic art x
  • Regional and National History x
clear all

View:

Overview

Systemic art

Term coined by Lawrence Alloway in 1966 to describe a type of abstract art characterized by the use of very simple standardized forms, usually geometric in character, either in a single ...

venereal diseases

venereal diseases   Reference library

Janice Dickin

The Oxford Companion to Canadian History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
454 words

...than to vd . Although the main objective of the campaign was sexual continence, treatments for both gonorrhea and syphilis were made publicly available. Gonorrhea was treated largely with salves and irrigations until sulfa drugs were developed in 1932 . Syphilis was treated by systemic and extended introduction of arsenic into the body and, in the insane, by intentional infection with malaria. The major side effect of the latter was death due to high fever; the side effects of the former included extreme pain, long-term poisoning, and death from shock. All...

Breast Cancer

Breast Cancer   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in the United States

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
2,703 words

...(known as sentinel nodes). If the pathology of the lymph nodes shows that cancer cells have metastasized (spread through lymph vessels to other parts of the body), more aggressive chemotherapy is indicated. Systemic treatments used to kill cancer cells remaining elsewhere in the body include chemotherapy (drugs given in a cycle) and hormonal therapy. Systemic treatments are used pre- or postsurgery, depending on the patient's diagnosis. The most common chemotherapies are: (1) a cocktail containing Cytoxan, methotrexate, 5 fluorouracil; (2) Adriamycin; and ...

Toomer, Jean

Toomer, Jean (b. 26 December 1894)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of African American History 1896 to the Present

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,495 words

...Chicago. Part three dramatically synthesizes but does not offer resolution to the problem of the African American artist and his or her past, with the notion of the African American facing systemic challenges of racism in America. The semiautobiographical Kabnis is a longer dramatic piece, offering temporary transcendence from societal oppression through the power of art. Published by Boni and Liveright in 1923 , Cane was well received by black and white critics and was reissued in 1969 , two years after Toomer's death. Cane was celebrated by...

Immigrants and African Americans

Immigrants and African Americans   Reference library

Encyclopedia of African American History 1896 to the Present

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
3,568 words

...from the urgent need for systemic change and collective responsibility. Instead of addressing the root cause of the many problems that all Americans of color face, government agencies and the media have attempted to use the same stick to scratch the backs of Asian Americans that they have used to beat African Americans with: If Asian Americans can make it, why can't blacks? It has become a common habit with many Americans to assign individual responsibility without reference to the effects of harsh circumstance or long-term systemic exclusion. Urban public...

Music

Music   Reference library

Encyclopedia of African American History 1896 to the Present

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
6,679 words

...real access to social, economic, or political authority and security. In a semifeudal province legendary for sustaining a rigid hierarchical structure that favored the few while ignoring the many, both black and white, the masses were marginalized. And the ramifications of systemic discrimination along racial, class, and gender lines have been horrendous. For generations, the South has endured as one of the most economically challenged and politically inequitable areas in the Union. The region especially has been oppressive regarding its black citizens....

Linguistics

Linguistics   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Mesoamerican Cultures

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
5,303 words

...Beziehungen zueinander sowie zu Süd-Amerika und Mexiko . 2 vols. Berlin, 1920. Pioneer work on Central American languages which remains useful both because of its intrinsic excellence and because many of the language varieties he recorded are now extinct. Longacre, Robert E. “Systemic comparison and reconstruction.” In Handbook of Middle American Indians , vol. 5, edited by Norman A. McQuown , pp. 117–159. Austin, Tex., 1967. Comprehensive survey of reconstructions up to the date of publication, with important suggestions and evaluations. Longacre, Robert...

Violence

Violence   Reference library

Black Women in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
4,746 words
Illustration(s):
2

...most black women are resilient and use a variety of strategies to survive the violence in their lives. Although examining individual risk factors can provide some insight, the violence experienced by African American women has deep historical roots. It has been brutal, systemic, and institutionalized. Black women have faced, and continue to deal with, battery, rape, and other forms of sexual violence, while police brutality, community violence, and mass incarceration continue to claim the lives of African American men and boys. Roots in Slavery...

Global Cities and Processes

Global Cities and Processes   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in the United States

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
5,611 words

...corporate service firms—the lawyers, accountants, and telecommunications experts that service global capital. Globalizing of Survival Circuits Crucial to the formation of a global supply of caretakers and other kinds of low-wage workers in demand in global cities is the fact of systemic links between the growth of global survival circuits and negative economic conditions in countries of origin that have been amplified by economic globalization. Among these conditions are a growth in unemployment, the closure of a large number of typically small and medium-sized...

Education

Education   Reference library

Encyclopedia of African American History, 1619–1895: From the Colonial Period to the Age of Frederick Douglass

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
10,852 words
Illustration(s):
3

...often unequal, black institutions. In the end, early African Americans were largely responsible for their own literary improvement. Between 1619 and 1830 people of color throughout the nation opened and sustained countless private educational institutions. Withstanding systemic neglect and occasional violent opposition, African Americans crafted, funded, and managed their own schools, and with that responsibility came freedom and autonomy. Colonization to Revolution While antebellum whites, southern and northern, often considered black literacy to be...

León Pérez, Argeliers

León Pérez, Argeliers (1918–1991)   Reference library

Rebecca M. Bodenheimer

Dictionary of Caribbean and Afro–Latin American Biography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
926 words

...producing countless articles from the early 1940s through the late 1980s. León was the most instrumental figure in establishing the field of musicology in Cuba. Much like his mentor, Fernando Ortiz, did for anthropology, León created the blueprint for the categorization and systemic analysis of Cuba’s various musical genres. His notion of “generic complexes,” for example, groups the nation’s popular musical practices into five umbrella categories, and is still heavily adhered to by contemporary Cuban musicologists, despite recent critiques of this system of...

Marshall, Paule

Marshall, Paule (1929– )   Reference library

Katrina Myers Caldwell

Dictionary of Caribbean and Afro–Latin American Biography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,162 words

...on Marshall’s development as a writer. These women not only taught her how to master narrative conventions like character development and the inventive uses of language, but they also taught her that her art and politics were interconnected. In addition to her writing, Marshall was actively engaged in the real- life struggle to organize for systemic change in American systems. As a member of the black, cultural left wing in Harlem in the 1950s, she was actively associated with several organizations that supported her work and encouraged her political...

Regions

Regions   Reference library

C. Steiner Michael

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Cultural and Intellectual History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

.... 1928. Reprint, Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1962. Written by the “Father of the Appalachian Trail” and charter member of the Regional Planning Association of America, an important summation of the philosophy and principles of the group that introduced regionalism as a systemic concept to the United States. McWilliams, Carey. Southern California Country: As Island on the Land . New York, Duell, Sloan & Pearce, 1946. Written by the most eloquent of the left-wing regionalists of the 1930s and 1940s, a masterpiece of American regional writing. Meinig,...

Work

Work   Reference library

Gerald Ronning

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...challenges from several quarters, not the least of which was African Americans themselves: until terror and violence took their tolls in the late 1880 s and 1890 s, African Americans continually engaged in streetcar boycotts, strikes, and work stoppages. The first significant systemic shock to Jim Crow came as a result of another seismic shift in American work, one that occurred during World War I. The war had all but halted immigration, and the United States experienced a significant labor shortage. African Americans migrated to northern industrial cities...

Exploring Present Pasts: Popular Arts as Historical Sources

Exploring Present Pasts: Popular Arts as Historical Sources   Reference library

Bogumil Jewsiewicki and Allen F. Roberts

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Historiography: Methods and Sources

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Archaeology
Length:
9,414 words
Illustration(s):
4

...artistic productions and practices give access to knowledge of pasts as understood locally. Display of such expression is a political act, often vividly debated and contested. As with any system of conservation and management of information, art as an artifactual system of memory should be approached taking systemic singularities into consideration while possessing local knowledge necessary for its interpretation. Primary Sources With very few exceptions such as the District Six Museum of Cape Town , we know of no public collections of earlier or recent s...

Sports Training System

Sports Training System   Reference library

Bjoern CONRAD

Berkshire Encyclopedia of China

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

...the political hay to be made from athletic success is particularly appealing to China’s political leadership. Athletic success yields three forms of political dividends in particular: intensification of national unity, strengthening of international esteem, and demonstration of systemic strength. An important element in China’s unparalleled economic development, which is based on foreign direct investment to an extent, is the Western image of China as a land of limitless opportunity and economic growth. Most investors, however, are nervous by nature, and...

Education System

Education System   Reference library

Heidi A. ROSS

Berkshire Encyclopedia of China

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

...reform plan of the twenty-first century charts a twelve-year course for education aligned with the goals of social and economic development for a “harmonious, moderately prosperous society,” technology innovation, improvement of rural education and teachers’ welfare, and systemic reform of elementary, vocational, and higher education. Achieving Universal Basic Education China’s education system is anchored by the belief in the power of schooling. Surveys show that family budgets give top priority to educational expenses, followed by health and housing...

Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Precolonial Sub-Saharan African Farming and Herding Communities

Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Precolonial Sub-Saharan African Farming and Herding Communities   Reference library

Paul Lane and Anna Shoemaker

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Historiography: Methods and Sources

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Archaeology
Length:
14,174 words
Illustration(s):
23

... 5b ). 69 Figure 5a. Example of Saharan and northeast African pastoralist rock art, showing an engraved milking scene, Tikastin, Messak Plateau, Libya. Line drawing by Victoria Waldock, 2009. Figure 5b. Example of Saharan and northeast African pastoralist rock art, showing a cattle herd, Laas Geel rock shelter, northern Somalia. Photo by Jorge de Torres, 2015. This art has been subject to multiple interpretations, and debate over the chronology of much of the art remains unresolved. Despite this, recent analyses do highlight the potential to infer...

Stone Tools: Their Relevance for Historians and the Study of Historical Processes

Stone Tools: Their Relevance for Historians and the Study of Historical Processes   Reference library

Justin Pargeter

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Historiography: Methods and Sources

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Archaeology
Length:
8,737 words
Illustration(s):
5

...industries and other archaeologically constructed entities. 33 Research in the mid- 20th century focused on categorical variation among stone tools, their assemblage structure, and sources of change and variability. 34 Later 20th-century research placed increasing focus on systemic relationships among components of culture as seen through material traces—reflecting the rising use of systems thinking in behavior sciences. 35 Following these trends, since the 1970s stone-tool analyses have increasingly sought to measure behavioral variability through...

Lǔ Xùn

Lǔ Xùn (1881–1936)   Reference library

Eileen J. CHENG

The Berkshire Dictionary of Chinese Biography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
6,790 words
Illustration(s):
3

...the miserable conditions around them. Hypocritical, weak, and lacking the capacity for self-reflection, his intellectual protagonists are depicted as unreliable narrators prone to wishful thinking, creating hopeful scenarios of the future and turning a blind eye to the systemic inequities before them. The uniformly pessimistic tone of Lu Xun short stories are unlikely manifestos for “changing people’s spirits.” Rather, they reveal the persistence of the most oppressive aspects of traditional culture, the predatory nature of humans, and the difficult...

Community-based Approaches to African History

Community-based Approaches to African History   Reference library

Peter R. Schmidt and Kathryn Weedman Arthur

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Historiography: Methods and Sources

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Archaeology
Length:
15,129 words
Illustration(s):
15

...and G. Mvenge, “Archaeologists, Tourists and Rainmakers: Problems in the Management of Rock Art Sites in Zimbabwe, a Case Study of Domboshava National Monument,” in Aspects of African Archaeology , ed. Pwiti and R. Soper (Harare: University of Zimbabwe Publications, 1996), 817–824; P. Taruvinga, “Community Participation and Rock Art Management in Zimbabwe,” in African Rock Art: The Future of Africa’s Past , ed. J. Deacon (Nairobi, Kenya: Trust for African Rock Art), 39–48; and I. Pikirayi, “Public Involvement in Archaeological Excavations in Southern...

View: