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Overview

Systemic art

Term coined by Lawrence Alloway in 1966 to describe a type of abstract art characterized by the use of very simple standardized forms, usually geometric in character, either in a single ...

Diplomacy, Theories of

Diplomacy, Theories of   Reference library

G. R. Berridge

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...of complex knowledge, well-tried procedures, and a distinctive lexicon. What are the main theories attending it, and how do they stand up? It is perhaps useful first to break this question up into those dealing with the best way to conduct diplomacy and those focused on the systemic conditions in which diplomacy is most likely to flourish and then to consider the even broader theories that seek to place diplomacy in its general relationship to international society as a whole. The Conduct of Diplomacy.  Many of the questions that come up in discussion of...

Italy

Italy   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
40,841 words
Illustration(s):
3

...attempts were made to evaluate the forces at the disposal of various states—to analyze the training, equipment, and motivation, and to examine the state of fortresses—in sum, to analyze the weak points of the defensive apparatuses of both allies and rivals. For the first time, a systemic mass of information of this type was made available to scholars. The largest documentary cache of this type, starting in 1450 , the Sforzesco collection, is conserved at the state archive of Milan. Also important is the correspondence of the dukes of Mantua and Ferrara, as well...

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