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Systemic art

Term coined by Lawrence Alloway in 1966 to describe a type of abstract art characterized by the use of very simple standardized forms, usually geometric in character, either in a single ...

Liberation Theology: Latin America

Liberation Theology: Latin America   Reference library

M. Daniel Carroll R.

The Oxford Illustrated History of the Bible

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
4,826 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
10

...exploited by the systemic sins of modern society and empower all excluded persons to transform their context for the possibility of enjoying the gift of life in all of its dimensions. This orientation suggests new ways of appreciating the significance of the life, death, and resurrection of Jesus. Modern Migration of the Spirit , from the Epic of American Civilization (1932–4), mural by the Mexican artist José Clemente Orozco (1833–1949). Baker Library, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH/Instituto Nacional de Bellas Artes y Literatura/©...

Kinship and Kingship: The Early Monarchy

Kinship and Kingship: The Early Monarchy   Reference library

Carol Meyers

Oxford History of the Biblical World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
20,793 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
3

...Once formalized, the centralized control of human and economic resources itself creates demands and accommodations. The initial shift to a state structure in effect sets off a chain reaction of other changes that mark the ongoing development of the system. The systemic nature of the state, or for that matter any political community, poses a problem for the examination of an ancient state, particularly one such as Israel, for which archaeological evidence is an essential source of information. States by nature have more complex, hierarchical...

Hard-edge painting

Hard-edge painting   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of American Art

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
338 words
Illustration(s):
2

...Ellsworth Kelly Gift of the artist, 1969 © The Museum of Modern Art/Licensed by SCALA/Art Resource, NY 2. Ellsworth Kelly Spectrum IV , oil on canvas, 13 joined panels, 2.97 × 2.97 m, 1967 © Ellsworth Kelly/Mrs. John Hay Whitney Bequest and The Sidney and Harriet Janis Collection (both by exchange), and Gift of Irving Blum © The Museum of Modern Art/Licensed by SCALA/Art Resource, NY Bibliography Systemic Painting (exh. cat. by L. Alloway , New York, Guggenheim, 1966) I. Sandler : American Art of the 1960s (New York, 1988) Lorser Feitelson and the Invention...

Conceptual art

Conceptual art   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of American Art

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
2,711 words
Illustration(s):
1

...one aspect of the systemic process whereby the work of art acquired signification or “completion” in society. Haacke in particular created works that deftly disclosed the conceptual role of institutions in framing all art, so that its meaning went far beyond the artist's original conception. Such works can be referred to as “meta-conceptual,” since they address the conditions preceding the production of all works of art and later influencing their public reception. Haacke neither privileged his own concepts as art nor resorted to an anti-art assault on the aura...

Eco-Art and Criticism

Eco-Art and Criticism   Reference library

Amanda Boetzkes

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
3,327 words
Illustration(s):
1

...of nature and the appreciation of art, but also recast this dichotomy as one in which the technological reproduction of nature mediates a sense of the systemic operations of an ecosystem. In similar developments, Eco-art in the twenty-first century has dovetailed with new media practices and has extended its domain of interest to include the science and visual culture of bio-art, genetics, artificial life, computer code, and robotics. [ See also Animal Aesthetics ; Conceptual Art ; Geoaesthetics ; Nature ; Public Art ; Science ; and Sublime . ] Bi...

Geoaesthetics

Geoaesthetics   Reference library

William L. Fox

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
3,301 words
Illustration(s):
1

...considered both strategic and scientific documents, but also fine art for sale to patrons. The rise of Impressionism and then abstract art saw topographical paintings and photographs devalued by the art world as mere mapping images. This continued until the 1960s, when art historians began to interpret geographic works in the context of European postcolonialism. A much-admired text of such reinterpretation was Bernard Smith’s seminal examination of the cognitive biases present in exploration art, European Vision and the South Pacific , published in 1959 ....

Abstract art

Abstract art   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of American Art

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
3,099 words
Illustration(s):
2

...of color, a smooth uncomplicated surface and line used in single or systemic configurations, artists of the 1960s such as Ellsworth Kelly , Agnes Martin , Jack Youngerman , Al Held , Larry Poons and Frank Stella imbued formal pictorial elements with total meaning. This self-referring abstract formalism was by 1968 generally understood as Minimalism, a term first applied to recent art by Richard Wollheim in 1965 (Meyer, p. 142) and some months later by Barbara Rose ( ABC Art , in Fabozzi, pp. 186–201). Working in Paris in 1947–54 , then...

Contemporary Asian American Art

Contemporary Asian American Art   Reference library

Laura Kina

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Asian American Literature and Culture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Society and culture, Literature, Literary theory and cultural studies
Length:
12,679 words
Illustration(s):
28

...war they face on a daily basis.” 63 Crafting Resistance: Art and Social Justice in the Era of Trump With the rise of overt racism, misogynistic, and anti-immigrant rhetoric that followed the 2016 US presidential election (e.g., Executive Order 13769—the so-called Muslim ban and the Trump administration family separation policy), Asian American artists and their communities were galvanized to craft creative forms of resistance and consider how they might use the arts to disrupt systemic racism. Figure 21. Tomie Arai, Double Happiness , installation...

Information Theory

Information Theory   Reference library

Meredith Hoy

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
3,677 words
Illustration(s):
2

...complex formal structures that evoke a particular sense of phenomenological pleasure. Lev Manovich ( 2007 ) has identified an “aesthetic of complexity” unfolding in certain strains of digital art. Although Miebach’s sculptures confound the urge for transparency and the immediate legibility sought after within traditional information visualization practices, the systemic complexity of Miebach’s works reveal a kind of informatic jouissance , the pure pleasure generated by the complex structure of information. Immaterial flows are transformed into material form...

Unipolarity: The Shaky Foundation of a Fashionable Concept

Unipolarity: The Shaky Foundation of a Fashionable Concept   Reference library

James H. Lebovic

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Empirical International Relations Theory

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
9,788 words
Illustration(s):
1

...of relevant systemic capability, with each possessing at least a quarter ( Rapkin et al., 1979 , p. 269). In a sense, these dominant countries must claim a “controlling share” of global power. But the 50% standard applies when a bipolar system amounts to a conspiracy of the strong against the weak, not when the dominant powers compete with each other. With such competition, this standard shifts control, by implication, to weaker states that supply the “swing votes” in the system. Two ostensibly “polar” states, each possessing 25% of systemic capability, can...

World Language Education and the Pedagogical Imperative

World Language Education and the Pedagogical Imperative   Reference library

James P. Lantolf

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Educational Psychology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2021
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
6,849 words
Illustration(s):
2

...Gal’perin and his colleagues formulated an educational framework based on the notion of orienting activity, which they called systemic theoretical instruction (STI). STI takes account of the dialectic relationship between virtual and material activity in the school setting. The core component of the framework is high-quality scientific and rigorous knowledge in specific educational domains (e.g., math, physics, history, linguistics, art, literature, and more) that is presented to students in a systematic and pedagogically functional format that enables them to...

The Causes of War

The Causes of War   Reference library

Karen Ruth Adams

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
11,233 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Waltz's persistent attention to the differences between systemic and reductionist theory, it is interesting that he did not compare the requirements for testing hypotheses derived from each. Nevertheless, given the systemic nature of structural realism, it is clear that hypotheses derived from the theory should not be tested in isolation from one another. Equifinality does not just indicate the need for a systemic theory to explain outcomes. It also means that when researchers apply and test a systemic theory they should expect to find that certain concepts...

Modernism

Modernism   Reference library

Johanna Drucker, David Kolb, Leon Botstein, Deborah Jowitt, Randall Stevenson, Chika Okeke-Agulu, Aida Yuen Wong, and Sonal Khullar

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
29,028 words
Illustration(s):
4

...Islamic Art . Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 1997. Beier, Ulli . Contemporary Art in Africa . New York: Praeger, 1968. Camden Arts Centre , ed. Contemporary African Art . London: Studio International, 1970. Deliss, Clémentine , ed. Seven Stories About Modern Art in Africa . Paris: Flammarion, 1995. Fanon, Frantz . “On National Culture.” In Wretched of the Earth , pp. 167–189. New York: Grove, 1966. Fosu, Kojo . 20th Century Art of Africa . Zaria, Nigeria: Gaskiya, 1986. Hassan, Salah . “The Modernist Experience in African Art: Visual...

Taliban

Taliban   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
2,011 words
Illustration(s):
2

...has undergone a resurgence, increasingly described as an “insurgency.” The insurgency exists on both sides of the Afghanistan-Pakistan border. There are many reasons offered for its success: the inability of the new Afghan state to provide materially for its citizens, rampant systemic corruption, the presence of foreign troops, the deaths of Afghan civilians at the hands of foreign troops, and the continued covert support of the Pakistani military, which believes that the Afghan state is insufficiently attuned to the needs of Pakistan. Since 2006 , Taliban...

Agenda Setting and the Policy Process: Focusing Events

Agenda Setting and the Policy Process: Focusing Events   Reference library

Thomas A. Birkland and Kathryn L. Schwaeble

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Public Administration

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
10,618 words
Illustration(s):
1

...that are furthest away from actual governmental action, such as any idea about a problem and its solution. These ideas are included in the systemic agenda, which contains any idea that could possibly be considered by participants in the policy process in a particular system. Agenda setting, then, is the process by which groups compete to move issues from the systemic agenda to the institutional agenda. The systemic agenda “consists of all issues that are commonly perceived by members of the political community as meriting public attention and as involving...

Photography

Photography   Reference library

Joel Snyder, Alan Trachtenberg, Patrick Maynard, Richard Shiff, Todd Cronan, and Matthew Biro

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
21,671 words
Illustration(s):
2

...industrial art, attempts at casting specific kinds of photographs as works of art began in the late 1880s in England, France, Germany, and the United States. Peter Henry Emerson, a British physician and photographer, initiated a fine art photography movement in 1889 that he labeled “naturalistic” photography. Emerson’s original position, which was adopted by others who followed his lead, maintained that a photograph could be a work of art, irrespective of its genetics, if it occasioned “aesthetic pleasure” in the viewer (although to qualify as art, the work...

Arab American music

Arab American music   Reference library

Kenneth S. Habib

The Grove Dictionary of American Music (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Music, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
6,176 words
Illustration(s):
4

...second (or a quartertone larger than a minor second). While the scales show a tendency for B to be raised in ascent and lowered in descent, compositional and stylistic considerations as well as characteristics of particular maqāmāt can mitigate this and dictate otherwise. The systemic relationship between the two groups of modes can be seen in part by intervallic relationships between them. For example, with 2/4 representing a half step, 3/4 a three-quarter step, and 4/4 a whole step, the stepwise intervallic content of Rāst in ascent is...

Persian

Persian   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
2,493 words
Illustration(s):
3

... q is a voiced fricative; but in initial and final position, it is partially or fully devoiced, and may have an affricate-like voiced release before vowels (varying with the speaker). The integration of the Arabic and Turkic loan components in Persian resulted in systemic change. Thus q is the result of the merger of the Persian voiced velar fricative with the Arabic uvular voiceless stop q and voiced fricative γ, as well as with the Turkic voice-neutral velar stop before back vowels. More crucial to the system is the merger of the mid vowels...

National Defense

National Defense   Reference library

Jari Eloranta

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
2,181 words
Illustration(s):
1

...on indirect taxes, to support the growing costs of warfare. The commercialization of warfare was accompanied by the rising importance of sea power as the European states began to build their overseas empires. States like Portugal, the Netherlands, and England became the “systemic leaders” due to their extensive fleets and commercial expansion. The early winners in the fight for world leadership were usually supported by the availability of inexpensive credit. This pattern can be perceived in England. Between 1535 and 1547 , the English defense share (military...

Modernism

Modernism   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
16,144 words
Illustration(s):
1

...and production of visual art and those of the culture industry, consumer capitalism, and mass-market media, many artists emphasized a shift from formal qualities to conceptual ones as the basis of an artwork's identity, thus moving away from Greenberg's focus on the medium as the distinguishing characteristic of a work of art. Conceptual artists of the 1960s emphasized the idea that art depended on the conventions according to which a work could be recognized as art in nonessentialist terms. Thus, the central issue for art in the latter half of the...

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