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Overview

strategic misrepresentation

In planning and budgeting, the tendency for those presenting projects for approval knowingly to understate costs and overstate benefits. This is a matter of deliberate policy and thus ...

strategic misrepresentation

strategic misrepresentation   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Accounting (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Social sciences, Business and Management
Length:
75 words

... misrepresentation In planning and budgeting, the tendency for those presenting projects for approval knowingly to understate costs and overstate benefits. This is a matter of deliberate policy and thus distinct from optimism bias or simple miscalculation. Those who adopt such a policy would probably justify it as an expected part of the negotiation ‘game’ and argue that many worthwhile projects would never get approval if the true costs were revealed at the...

strategic misrepresentation

strategic misrepresentation   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Business and Management (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Social sciences, Business and Management
Length:
78 words

... misrepresentation In planning and budgeting, the tendency for those presenting projects for approval knowingly to understate costs and overstate benefits. This is a matter of deliberate policy and thus distinct from optimism bias , planning fallacy , or simple miscalculation. Those who adopt such a policy would probably justify it as an expected part of the negotiation ‘game’ and argue that many worthwhile projects would never get approval if the true costs were revealed at the...

strategic misrepresentation

strategic misrepresentation  

In planning and budgeting, the tendency for those presenting projects for approval knowingly to understate costs and overstate benefits. This is a matter of deliberate policy and thus distinct from ...
planning fallacy

planning fallacy  

The demonstrated tendency for people to underestimate the length of time it will take them to complete a task. Various explanations have been offered, including optimism bias, failure to allow for ...
tactical voting

tactical voting  

Reference type:
Overview Page
In a first‐past‐the‐post electoral system a vote is tactical when it is cast for a candidate that the voter believes is more likely to win than their preferred candidate, to best influence who wins ...
optimism bias

optimism bias  

The tendency for people to be optimistic about future events, especially those seen as following from their own plans and actions. Although optimism is no doubt a stimulus to enterprise, it has ...
Game Theory

Game Theory   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Peace

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
2,494 words

...and preferences. Here are some of the results in shorthand version. In three-person games, individual notions of justice or equity often seem to take priority before monetary gains; a dollar tends to divided equally rather than the 50-50-0 indicated by the theory. The analyst misrepresents the game by failing to take these norms into account in the utility functions of the actors. In two-person zero-sum games with merely two or three options, players tend to be able to identify the saddle point if one exists and act accordingly; this is not the case when the...

Unilateral Peace Initiatives

Unilateral Peace Initiatives   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Peace

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
2,572 words

...new direction in Egypt’s relations with Israel, which was to the strategic advantage of both. An Evolving Understanding of the Characteristics of UPI The theoretical literature on UPI is rich, as are the many examples of its use. We add to this discussion a few notable characteristics in the form of propositions that dig deep into the subtle thinking on UPI. A few propositions to stimulate further thinking include the following: The more a UPI is misunderstood, misattributed, or misrepresented, the more it is negatively seen as a ploy or weakness and thus may...

Sex Crimes and the Media

Sex Crimes and the Media   Reference library

Tanya Serisier

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Crime, Media, and Popular Culture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
15,533 words

...cultural effects of feminist activism and social change ( Gavey, 2005 ; Horeck, 2004 ). The primary debates in relation to media and child sexual abuse center on questions of moral panic and debates about the ways in which the phenomenon is or is not misrepresented and the causes of that misrepresentation. While some authors argue that feminists and survivor-activists have contributed to a “witch-hunt” atmosphere, others argue that this agenda has been appropriated and depoliticized by media sources that have displaced the critique of power within the...

Postcolonialism and Peace

Postcolonialism and Peace   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Peace

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
3,372 words

...in the literature. Some readers find the specialized language difficult to read. Assessment The colonial relationships that shaped the modern world were profoundly violent and conflict-ridden, from settlement, through resistance, to “national” liberation. They depended on misrepresentations of the racialized Other to justify and bolster conquest, terror, injustice, exploitation, dehumanization, and genocide. Although no longer acted out in the context of territorial occupation, oppression continues through gendered race, as well as along the colonial fault...

Public Service Announcements and Exposure to Health and Risk Messages

Public Service Announcements and Exposure to Health and Risk Messages   Reference library

William DeJong

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Health and Risk Message Design and Processing

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
8,112 words

...behavior change. This overview of public service advertising first examines what television, radio, and print PSAs can potentially accomplish, taking into account the inherent limitations of these mediums and the strategic advantages of using PSAs, not in isolation, but as part of a broader intervention. The next section outlines a strategic planning process for developing effective PSA messages, which culminates in a media planning guide that specifies the key messages and outlines how the PSA campaign will work in sync with other intervention...

Religion and Journalism

Religion and Journalism   Reference library

Gregory Perreault

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Journalism Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
6,799 words

...can be considered problematic for a few reasons: because of the implicit religion often operating in the cultures where the journalists are located and because of the easy possibility of misrepresenting religious traditions with which journalists are unfamiliar. This discussion of media and religion only grew more urgent as researchers noted the widespread misrepresentations of Muslims surrounding the terrorist attack on the World Trade Center towers on September 11, 2001, and expressed concern about potential effects on the Muslim population ( Poole, ...

Fake News

Fake News   Reference library

Bente Kalsnes

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Journalism Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
9,104 words

...( Jowett & O’Donnell, 2012 ). Political propaganda can also be called strategic narratives , which can be seen as a tool for political actors to articulate a position on a specific issue and to shape perceptions and actions ( Roselle, Miskimmon, & O’Loughlin, 2014 ). Information operations is a similar term used by Facebook to describe actions taken by organized actors to distort domestic or foreign political sentiment, most frequently to achieve a strategic and/or geopolitical outcome ( Weedon, Nuland, & Stamos, 2017 ). These operations can...

Using Quotations in Health and Risk Message Design

Using Quotations in Health and Risk Message Design   Reference library

Rhonda Gibson

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Health and Risk Message Design and Processing

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
8,397 words

...and presented in an audio clip, often called a sound bite if it is just a few sentences. Television journalists sometimes use quotes presented through text on the screen. If done correctly, quotations provide many benefits: They improve accuracy and reduce the risk of misrepresentation; they allow audiences to see not only a source’s ideas but also how those ideas were presented; they liven up a news story by including first-person accounts that are often colorful; and most important, they add credibility to a news report by showing that the reporter...

Public Relations in Health and Risk Communication

Public Relations in Health and Risk Communication   Reference library

John Lynch

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Health and Risk Message Design and Processing

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
8,322 words

...speeches, interactive exhibits, public debates, and materials developed specifically for journalists, like press releases ( Arata, 2007 ). The Royal Society, the United Kingdom’s national academy of science, in 2005 engaged in a media relations campaign “to tackle misrepresentation of the scientific evidence on climate change in the UK national print, broadcast, and online media,” which included staged events, such as talks by prominent society members; a media guide; and letters to the editor rebutting what they saw as errors in news reporting ( Ward,...

Content Analysis in the Study of Crime, Media, and Popular Culture

Content Analysis in the Study of Crime, Media, and Popular Culture   Reference library

Lisa A. Kort-Butler

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Crime, Media, and Popular Culture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
4,986 words

...genres, content analyses in the past few decades have challenged the accuracy of media presentations of crime and justice issues, generally finding that the media often exaggerate the reality of crime by focusing on unusual or rare crimes. Media presentations also tend to misrepresent offenders and victims in ways that do not represent their actual distribution in the population by race, gender, or age, such that young male minorities are seen as the default “typical” criminal. Thus, the nature of crime, as portrayed in the media and popular culture, is...

Online Crime

Online Crime   Reference library

Majid Yar

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Crime, Media, and Popular Culture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
11,235 words

...Online frauds take a number of forms, one of the most widespread being auction and retail fraud. Retail frauds involve the online sale of goods that may have been stolen, counterfeit, damaged, or otherwise misrepresented in terms of their quality or features—or simply never delivered to the paying customer. 28 Other frauds involve offenders misrepresenting themselves as government officials, so as to extort or scam money from their victims. For example, in 2011 the U.S. Internet Crime Complaint Center (IC3) received more than 14,000 complaints from victims...

Designing Research for Meaningful Results in Educational Leadership

Designing Research for Meaningful Results in Educational Leadership   Reference library

Karen Moran Jackson and Ric Brown

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Educational Administration

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2021
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
7,123 words
Illustration(s):
1

...In another example, the new hypothesis may be presented in tandem with the old hypothesis, as if the new was included a priori as well. While both are seen as problematic, the former is considered a more extreme form of HARKing as it hides a nonsignificant finding and misrepresents the original intent of the data collection and analysis. Whether a hypothesis was generated before or after data analysis influences its interpretation and goes against the premise of null hypothesis significance testing. This is because of the basic principle that data used...

Scientific Uncertainty in Health and Risk Messaging

Scientific Uncertainty in Health and Risk Messaging   Reference library

Stephen Zehr

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Health and Risk Message Design and Processing

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
11,398 words

...and the performative value of uncertainty. Science as Culture , 18 , 151–164. McGoey, L. (2012). Strategic unknowns: Towards a sociology of ignorance. Economy and Society , 41 , 1–16. Merton, R. K. (1942). Science and technology in a democratic order. Journal of Legal and Political Sociology , 1 , 115–126. Merton, R. K. (1987). Three fragments from a sociologist’s notebook: Establishing the phenomenon, specified ignorance, and strategic research materials. Annual Review of Sociology , 13 , 1–28. Morello-Frosch, R. , Varshavsky, J. , Liboiron...

Journalistic Writing and Style

Journalistic Writing and Style   Reference library

Maarit Jaakkola

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Journalism Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
14,450 words

...neologisms. The conscious use of style and style-related techniques, such as foregrounding or the use of standpoint, also has been viewed as a means of entrenching imbalances of power ( Avieson, 2014 ). Feminist stylistics ( Mills, 1995 ) have shifted representations and misrepresentations of gendered identities to the forefront and called for linguistic reforms to promote more gender-inclusive language. Literature has explored how intersectionality, that is, the examination of multiple methods of simultaneous oppression, for example, exclusion based on...

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