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strategic misrepresentation

In planning and budgeting, the tendency for those presenting projects for approval knowingly to understate costs and overstate benefits. This is a matter of deliberate policy and thus ...

Nigeria

Nigeria   Reference library

The Continuum Complete International Encyclopedia of Sexuality

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
30,636 words
Illustration(s):
1

...357 of the Nigerian Criminal Code defines rape as “unlawful carnal knowledge of a woman or girl, with or without her consent, or if the consent is obtained by force or by means of threats, intimidation of any kind, or by fear of harm or by means of false and fraudulent misrepresentation as to the nature of the act or in the case of a married woman, by impersonating her husband.” The offense is punishable with life imprisonment with or without whipping. This definition in section 357, however, needs to be read with section 6, which excludes forced sexual...

United States of America

United States of America   Reference library

The Continuum Complete International Encyclopedia of Sexuality

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
234,746 words
Illustration(s):
2

...; Jacobus 1937 ). Blacks have also been characterized as holding more-permissive attitudes regarding extramarital affairs (Bell 1968 ; Christensen & Johnson 1978 ; Houston 1981 ; Reiss 1964 , 1967 ; Roebuck & McGee 1977 ; Staples 1978 ). This simplistic notion may well misrepresent the complexity of African-American sexual values. According to Robert Staples ( 1986 , 258), Blacks have traditionally had a more naturalistic attitude toward human sexuality, seeing it as the normal expression of sexual attraction between men and women. Even in African...

An Asian American Epistemology of Reading: Aiiieeeee! and Ekphrasis

An Asian American Epistemology of Reading: Aiiieeeee! and Ekphrasis   Reference library

Elda E. Tsou

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Asian American Literature and Culture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020

...a particular literary text came under fire for failing to be representative. A notorious early debate, for example, raged over Maxine Hong Kingston’s The Woman Warrior ( 1976 ), which was accused of being “fake Chinese American” and of pandering to orientalist fantasies by misrepresenting Chinese myths and assuming a feminist stance. 20 The most painful of these episodes was in 1998, when the Association for Asian American Studies, the field’s professional organization, rescinded a fiction award for Blu’s Hanging , a novel by Lois-Ann Yamanaka featuring...

Object Theory and Asian American Literature

Object Theory and Asian American Literature   Reference library

Chad Shomura

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Asian American Literature and Culture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020

...attainment of subjecthood without a simultaneous reevaluation of objects. In the United States, subjecthood has been the vehicle for securing legal rights, material resources, and social recognition. The attainment of it has been largely synonymous with throwing off painful misrepresentations and defining oneself on one’s own terms. Nonetheless, key works of Marxism, poststructuralism, and black studies have generated much skepticism over the value of subjecthood, its presumptions of a true self, and its aspirations for sovereignty and invulnerability. They...

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