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Overview

strategic misrepresentation

In planning and budgeting, the tendency for those presenting projects for approval knowingly to understate costs and overstate benefits. This is a matter of deliberate policy and thus ...

Ancient Trade Routes

Ancient Trade Routes   Reference library

Oxford Bible Atlas (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
972 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

...important was his establishment of a fleet of ships at Ezion‐geber at the northern end of the Gulf of Aqaba, with access to the Red Sea. This was achieved in partnership with Hiram of Tyre ( 1 Kgs. 9: 26–8 ). The significance of this must be seen in conjunction with the much misrepresented story of the visit of the Queen of Sheba from south Arabia. For all her apparent interest in Solomon's wisdom, it is perhaps his commercial wisdom which was particularly attractive and the primary purpose of the relationship was probably trade. She came bearing gold and...

Psalms

Psalms   Reference library

C. S. Rodd and C. S. Rodd

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
62,266 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
3

...Psalter ( e. 14) is an indication that some, perhaps all, of the psalms are self-conscious poetic creations. Certainly an awareness of the skill of the poet will add to our appreciation of the psalms. There is, nevertheless, a danger that modern conventions and fashions will misrepresent the intentions and art of the poet. Once again we are faced with the ‘then’ and the ‘now’, and every literary approach needs to be tempered with a sense of the historical. 14. It will be seen that the demands made upon the commentary writer are immense. Certainly it is quite...

Erasmus,                 Desiderius

Erasmus, Desiderius (1466?–1536)   Reference library

Hilmar M. Pabel and Arnoud Visser

The Oxford Guide to the Historical Reception of Augustine

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion
Length:
5,053 words

...Rm. inch . ( CWE 76:261–91). In comparing the opinions advanced so far, E. describes Aug.'s position as one that left some room for the cooperation of the human will with grace, which he considers ‘probable’, while he accuses Luther of misrepresenting with ideas that actually belonged to Andreas Karlstadt ( CWE 76:278–85). In Hyperaspistes 2 ( 1527 ), revisiting in detail the biblical places discussed in the debate, E. continues to emphasize Aug.'s affirmation...

Terrorism and Religion: An Overview

Terrorism and Religion: An Overview   Reference library

Peter Henne

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Politics and Religion

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Religion
Length:
7,699 words

...A prominent example is Kydd and Walter’s ( 2006 ) argument that terrorism is a form of “costly signaling” that violent groups use to gain support and intimidate targets; they argue that the “strategic logics” terrorists follow are rationalist in nature. Similarly, Ethan Bueno de Mesquita has advanced rationalist explanations for terrorism, focusing on its strategic nature ( Bueno de Mesquita, 2005a , 2005b ; Bueno de Mesquita & Dickson, 2007 ). And in a series of articles, Abrahms ( 2006 , 2008 ) argues that terrorism is not effective—countering...

Terrorism

Terrorism   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
3,497 words
Illustration(s):
1

...a prominent feature of Islamic literature on jihād (religiously sanctioned warfare). In warfare, necessity might justify putting noncombatants at risk, but harm to innocents should neither be intentional nor excessive. Thus, phrases such as “Islamic terrorism” significantly misrepresent the religious roots of violence committed by Muslims. Nationalist Rationales for Terrorist Acts. Since World War II, the Middle East has become infamous as a cockpit for terrorism, although many of the perpetrators have not purported to act in the name of Islam. Arguably, the...

Christianity and Islam

Christianity and Islam   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
4,809 words
Illustration(s):
2

...or not, the colonial and imperial designs of their home countries. How far this generalization is true is a moot point. The question is whether study of a culture and religion by an external observer should be entirely rejected because of a certain inevitable degree of misrepresentation. Christian scholars, on the other hand, have regretted that few Muslims have attempted to create an Islamic “occidentalism” (Watt, p. 116). Of course, these Christian scholars intend that such work follow methods of modern—that is, Western—critical scholarship to balance the...

Islam and the Ottoman Turks

Islam and the Ottoman Turks   Reference library

Adam S. Francisco

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Martin Luther

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Religion
Length:
6,668 words

...and restoring justice and peace. “In a war of this sort it is both Christian and an act of love to kill the enemy without hesitation to plunder and burn and injure him by every method of warfare until he is conquered.” 14 Even so, Luther grew increasingly aware of enemies misrepresenting and allies misunderstanding his position on war with the Turks. So in 1528 , working with his colleague Philip Melanchthon, he came out strongly in favor of war against the Ottomans in the Unterricht der Visitatorn . First, he condemned pastors who were teaching that...

Hinduism in America

Hinduism in America   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Religion in America

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Religion
Length:
11,496 words

...Hinduism, youth religious education groups ( bāla vihār ), and Hindu student associations at the university level, such as the Hindu Student Council, founded in 1990 . This emphasis on controlling the educational instruction about Hinduism largely derives from a fear of misrepresentation. In the United States, many Indian Hindus continue to be dismayed and offended at the manner in which their religion and culture have been presented in elementary, secondary, and university publications in the United States. Parents objected to elementary and secondary...

Biblical Commentary: New Testament

Biblical Commentary: New Testament   Reference library

Erik H. Herrmann

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Martin Luther

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Religion
Length:
15,182 words

...epistles. Furthermore, new research in Pauline exegesis over the last fifty years has only generated more interest, especially because Luther has been used as a foil for the so-called “new perspective” on Paul. 114 Although this interest has led to some fairly egregious misrepresentations of Luther’s exegesis, 115 it has also encouraged more efforts in the history of exegesis in Luther and in general. 116 Still, research on Luther’s interpretation of other New Testament texts is rather sparse and continues to invite further exploration. The Annotations on...

Bible Translation and the German Language

Bible Translation and the German Language   Reference library

Anja Lobenstein-Reichmann

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Martin Luther

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Religion
Length:
14,540 words

...of varieties within a natural language like German—neither the dialects, nor the sociolects, nor the vernacular or even the full spectrum of orality; instead, it reduces this diversity to its variants with an overarching function. Moreover, the term unified language misrepresents the fact that every overarching pattern itself has a sociolectal dimension. Even today its mastery is limited to certain educated classes (as well as to other spatial groups). Furthermore, the ideology of a unified language usually conceals the long-prevailing...

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