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strategic misrepresentation

In planning and budgeting, the tendency for those presenting projects for approval knowingly to understate costs and overstate benefits. This is a matter of deliberate policy and thus ...

Gender Roles

Gender Roles   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Mesoamerican Cultures

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
6,360 words

...favors. Arvey, Margaret Campbell . “Women of Ill-repute in the Florentine Codex .” In The Role of Gender in Pre-Columbian Art and Architecture , edited by Virginia E. Miller , pp. 179–204. Lanham, Md., 1988. Argues that, owing to bias and misunderstanding, Spanish sources misrepresent Aztec attitudes toward female sexuality and sexual morality. Brown, Betty Ann . “Seen but not Heard: Women in Aztec Ritual— The Sahagún Texts.” In Text and Image in Pre-Columbian Art: Essays on the Interrelationship of the Verbal and Visual Arts , edited by Janet Catherine...

Asian American Culture

Asian American Culture   Reference library

Susette Min

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Cultural and Intellectual History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Rather than begin with the “origins” of Asian American culture or the history of misrepresentations of Asians, the following essay presents a schematic genealogy of interdisciplinary approaches to Asian American culture and draws primarily on contemporary (post-1970s) examples from Asian American literature, film, theater, art, and popular culture. Emerging out of a convergence of activities and conditions, including political activism, cultural isolation, and strategic necessity, the Asian American movement in the late 1960s established Asian Americans as...

Nigeria

Nigeria   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Africa

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies, History, Regional and National History
Length:
4,883 words
Illustration(s):
3

...merchants acting in that de facto capacity) and local rulers, or conquest. Violence and trickery were essential to both approaches, since many customary rulers were assured of tragic consequences if they refused to sign. Evidence abounds, too, that the British officials often misrepresented the letter and import of the treaties, while exaggerating reports about impending threats from neighboring communities. Trading concerns played an extensive role in the formal colonial subjugation of Nigeria. Faced with strong French competition in the North in the 1870s, a...

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