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Overview

strategic misrepresentation

In planning and budgeting, the tendency for those presenting projects for approval knowingly to understate costs and overstate benefits. This is a matter of deliberate policy and thus ...

Exploration

Exploration   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,825 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...pretty transparently, arose from the need to legitimize the British acquisition of the Cape in 1802 . The authoritative character of exploratory writing was undermined not only by these forms of incoherence but also by the association of the genre with fantasy and misrepresentation. While a few notable explorers, such as Cook and Park, were widely presented as exemplary heroes, others, including James *Bruce , were sometimes regarded as charlatans. Because the value of a particular journey was so closely identified with new discoveries and with the...

Minorities

Minorities   Reference library

Patrick Wolfe, Zvi Ben-Dor Benite, and Kirsten Refsing

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
3,933 words

...is an ethnic arithmetic. The two terms that ethnic arithmetic combines, mathematics and culture, together exclude the political. In constructing a homogeneous ethnic majority (white people), ethnic arithmetic misrepresents the mathematics of dominance. Correspondingly, in constructing minorities as anthropological entities, the same arithmetic misrepresents the politics of exclusion. Citizenship and Enfranchisement. The affinity between ethnic arithmetic and liberal-democratic theory centers on the concept of citizenship. Because individual citizens are formally...

The Korean War

The Korean War   Reference library

James I. Matray

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Foreign Relations

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2021
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
12,825 words

...required providing them with asylum. Orthodox works on the Korean War judged his decision as correct and his justification as sincere. More recent writers, however, have asserted that the president’s main goal was to win a propaganda victory in the Cold War, which required misrepresenting the facts. Voluntary repatriation directly contradicted the Geneva Convention, which mandated, as the Communist side demanded, return of all POWs. Far worse, the Truman administration encouraged the belief that those Communist prisoners rejecting repatriation were defecting...

Technology and US Foreign Relations

Technology and US Foreign Relations   Reference library

Michael A. Krysko

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Foreign Relations

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2021
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
20,928 words

...his True Voice ,” Newsweek , September 23, 2001. For President Bush’s reference to World War II and the Cold War, see “ Transcript of President Bush’s Address ,” September 21, 2001. 42. For Robin Williams’ commentary, see “ Robin Williams Live on Broadway Script . For the misrepresentation and manufacturing of intelligence to justify the Iraq War, see Johnson, Nemesis , 98–100. 43. On Obama’s strategy, see Howard LaFranchi and Gordon Lubold, “ Obama Redefines War on Terror ,” Christian Science Monitor , January 30, 2009. For terror attacks since September...

Gender Roles

Gender Roles   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Mesoamerican Cultures

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
6,360 words

...favors. Arvey, Margaret Campbell . “Women of Ill-repute in the Florentine Codex .” In The Role of Gender in Pre-Columbian Art and Architecture , edited by Virginia E. Miller , pp. 179–204. Lanham, Md., 1988. Argues that, owing to bias and misunderstanding, Spanish sources misrepresent Aztec attitudes toward female sexuality and sexual morality. Brown, Betty Ann . “Seen but not Heard: Women in Aztec Ritual— The Sahagún Texts.” In Text and Image in Pre-Columbian Art: Essays on the Interrelationship of the Verbal and Visual Arts , edited by Janet Catherine...

William McKinley and American Empire

William McKinley and American Empire   Reference library

Michael Patrick Cullinane

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Foreign Relations

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2021
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
7,674 words

...has been at once misunderstood and successfully misrepresented.” 1 No truer observation of McKinley exists. Journalists during the Gilded Age often reported McKinley as quietly reticent without elaborating on whether his cagey silences shrouded a keen intellect or exemplified his inexperience and disinterest. Acquaintances and colleagues knew McKinley would entertain policy arguments even if he showed no inclination to adopt them, but they believed this outreach to political opponents was part of his strategic management of the executive branch. Other...

Asian American Culture

Asian American Culture   Reference library

Susette Min

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Cultural and Intellectual History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Rather than begin with the “origins” of Asian American culture or the history of misrepresentations of Asians, the following essay presents a schematic genealogy of interdisciplinary approaches to Asian American culture and draws primarily on contemporary (post-1970s) examples from Asian American literature, film, theater, art, and popular culture. Emerging out of a convergence of activities and conditions, including political activism, cultural isolation, and strategic necessity, the Asian American movement in the late 1960s established Asian Americans as...

Vietnam War

Vietnam War   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Australian Military History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
2,344 words
Illustration(s):
2

...War The Vietnam War was the longest and arguably the most divisive Australian military involvement in our history. It is also the least understood, and the most misrepresented. Australia had recognised the French-created government of Bao Dai in February 1950 , on the same day as the United States, and in the later 1950s had declared support for the regime of Ngo Dinh Diem , at American behest. Support for South Vietnam, and involvement in the Laotian crisis of 1961 , were part of Australia's broader commitment to the policy of containment of...

Historiography

Historiography   Reference library

George C. Herring and Carol Reardon

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...and productive lines of inquiry. First, the Cold War national security environment launched an enduring intellectual specialty called “strategic studies.” Although it found its fullest expression among political scientists and international relations specialists and included much detailed consideration of nuclear technology and capabilities, much foundational discussion rested on a historical understanding of the strategic thought of great military theorists of the past, including the nineteenth-century American navalist Alfred Thayer Mahan , the ancient...

Nigeria

Nigeria   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Africa

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies, History, Regional and National History
Length:
4,883 words
Illustration(s):
3

...merchants acting in that de facto capacity) and local rulers, or conquest. Violence and trickery were essential to both approaches, since many customary rulers were assured of tragic consequences if they refused to sign. Evidence abounds, too, that the British officials often misrepresented the letter and import of the treaties, while exaggerating reports about impending threats from neighboring communities. Trading concerns played an extensive role in the formal colonial subjugation of Nigeria. Faced with strong French competition in the North in the 1870s, a...

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