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strategic misrepresentation

In planning and budgeting, the tendency for those presenting projects for approval knowingly to understate costs and overstate benefits. This is a matter of deliberate policy and thus ...


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Encyclopedia of Rhetoric

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
Language reference, Linguistics
7,188 words

...Materials and Methods, Results, and Discussion ( IMRD ). Scholars in the history and rhetoric of science have investigated the evolution and epistemology of this form, which presumably reflects the ideal order of experimental design, but which has also been criticized for misrepresenting the often chaotic nature of research procedures. Much work has also been done on the optimal internal arrangement of the individual sections of the research article, especially its introduction, which, according to John Swales ( 1990 ) and others, tends to follow a fixed...