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Overview

Dodge Commission

A body appointed by President William McKinley in 1898 to investigate charges of neglect that led to appalling conditions in U.S. military camps during the Spanish-American War (1898). It ...

Courts, the Law, and LGBT Rights in Asia

Courts, the Law, and LGBT Rights in Asia   Reference library

Holning Lau

The Oxford Encyclopedia of LGBT Politics and Policy

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2021
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
10,237 words

... 2010 , the Supreme Court of the Philippines held that the Philippines Elections Commission violated rights to expression, association, and equality when it denied accreditation to Ang Ladlad (Out of the Closet), a political party formed by individuals who openly identified as LGBT. The court said that the denial could not even satisfy a “rational basis” review that is deferential to the legislature ( Ang Ladlad LGBT Party v. Commission on Elections , 2010 ). The decision dodged the question of whether sexual orientation discrimination could ever trigger the...

Political biography

Political biography   Reference library

Oxford Companion to Australian Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
2,954 words

... Menzies , and Geoffrey Serle 's John Monash ( 1982 ), are much more influenced by social and cultural history, the problem of metropolis and periphery, and awareness of institutional formation than were the works of their predecessors. Pat Weller 's work on John Button , Dodging Raindrops ( 1999 ), encompasses the recent transformation of the Labor Party. Geoffrey Bolton 's Edmund Barton ( 2000 ) adopts reflexivity within a conventional form, hinging on a question, why was this ‘the one man for the job?’ and informed by consciousness of his own...

Iraq, US Invasion of

Iraq, US Invasion of   Reference library

Peter Sluglett

The Oxford Companion to International Relations

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
3,891 words

...to leave the country will continue to try to do so. [ See also Bush, George W. ; Iran-Iraq War ; Iraq ; 9/11 ; and United States Foreign Policy . ] Bibliography Allawi, Ali . The Occupation of Iraq: Winning the War, Losing the Peace . (New Haven, Conn., 2007). Dodge, Toby . “The Ideological Roots of Failure: The Application of Kinetic Neo-liberalism to Iraq.” International Affairs 86, no. 6 (2010): 1269–1286. Haddad, Fanar . Sectarianism in Iraq: Antagonistic Visions of Unity . (New York, 2011). Harling, Peter . “Beyond Political Ruptures:...

The Asia–Europe Meeting (ASEM)

The Asia–Europe Meeting (ASEM)   Reference library

Yeo Lay Hwee

The Oxford Encyclopedia of European Union Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2021
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
10,586 words

...of documents and invitations. It would also have an archival function and serve as a repository of information that would contribute to the institutional memory. Put simply, the AVS is a mere online platform and a self-service device for all ASEM members, the existence of which dodges the need to have a physical location with working staff. 6 The idea of an AVS was endorsed during the Helsinki summit but was never put in practice. Hence, the question over the coordination of the ASEM process, and a secretarial mechanism resurfaced after the Beijing summit. As...

Israel: A Politically Monitored Military in a Militarized Society

Israel: A Politically Monitored Military in a Militarized Society   Reference library

Yagil Levy

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Military in Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
8,674 words

... Sharett, M. (1978). The diaries of Moshe Sharett . Tel Aviv, Israel: Sifriyat Maariv (Hebrew). Sheffer, G. , & Barak, O. (2013). Israel ’ s security networks: A theoretical and comparative perspective . New York, NY: Cambridge University Press. Starr, P. (2010). Dodging a bullet: Democracy’s gains in modern war. In E. Keir & R. R. Krebs (Eds.), In war ’ s wake: International conflict and the fate of liberal democracy (pp. 50–66). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press. Tilly, C. (1985). War making and state making as organized crime. In...

U.S. Military Service and LGBT Policy

U.S. Military Service and LGBT Policy   Reference library

Marissa Reilly, Elizabeth L. Hillman, and Elliot Koltnow

The Oxford Encyclopedia of LGBT Politics and Policy

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2021
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
11,655 words

...of exclusion waned ( Shilts, 1994 , p. 70). Although Navy discharge rates for homosexuality were as high as 1,600–1,700 per year in peacetime from 1963 to 1966 , in times of conflict they dropped, with only 643 discharges in 1969 ( Shilts, 1994 ). Heterosexuals hoping to dodge the draft by playing “hoaxosexual” were out of luck, as the military was on guard against malingerers hoping to avoid the increasingly unpopular war effort ( Shilts, 1994 , p. 67). Enlistees who admitted honestly to harboring “homosexual tendencies” were even pressured by...

Iraq: Civil–Military Relations from the Monarchy to the Republics

Iraq: Civil–Military Relations from the Monarchy to the Republics   Reference library

Ahmed S. Hashim

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Military in Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
17,613 words

...diluted as Shia Arabs and Sunni Kurds began to outnumber Sunnis. What transpired under Maliki was almost the exact opposite of the state of affairs under Saddam Hussein’s regime where Sunni Arabs constituted the overwhelming majority of the senior officer corps ( al-Ali, 2014 ; Dodge, 2012 ; Gaub, 2016 ). By 2011 when the Americans decided to withdraw, the incipient civil war had been won by the Shias, now comfortably ensconced in power, and Sunni insurgency had been weakened, with many of its members “turned” to fight the Sunni jihadist extremists who now...

The U.S. Politico–Military–Industrial Complex

The U.S. Politico–Military–Industrial Complex   Reference library

John A. Alic

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Military in Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
19,585 words
Illustration(s):
1

...poorly in Vietnam. Mission profiles were much different than those for which aircraft such as the mainstay F-105, nearly the size and weight of a World War II “heavy” bomber, had been conceived. Pilots flying them in Southeast Asia struggled to locate targets on the ground while dodging antiaircraft defenses and hostile interceptors; many were lost ( Werrell, 1998 ; one cannot do better than Broughton, 1985 , for what it was like to fly F-105s over Vietnam). As the lessons became plain, OSD compelled a reluctant Air Force to buy F-4s, a Navy aircraft that,...

Syria: Coup Politics, Authoritarian Regimes, and Savage War

Syria: Coup Politics, Authoritarian Regimes, and Savage War   Reference library

Philippe Droz-Vincent

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Military in Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
15,997 words

...the new upcoming phase. Mandatory conscription ( tajnid ) will be a key component of rule. Hence, the regime has displayed a strong endeavor to reorganize conscription (with the duration of possible recall within ranks ranging from 18 to 42 years) after huge defections and draft dodging, to apply it to proregime militiamen, and to reinstate it after “reconciliation agreements” for reintegrated former rebels who signed “settlement” ( taswiya al-wada’ ) agreements (agreements to settle their situation; interview with a former negotiator, 2018 , location...

Social Justice, Anti-Poverty Work, and Religion

Social Justice, Anti-Poverty Work, and Religion   Reference library

Lara Rusch, R. Khari Brown, Ronald E. Brown, and Francine Banner

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Politics and Religion

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Religion
Length:
7,930 words
Illustration(s):
3

...these “free spaces,” “protected spaces,” and “cultural laboratories,” where otherwise marginalized voices can support each other, raise consciousness of shared experience, develop relational practices and leadership skills, and ultimately influence public debate and policy ( Dodge, 2011 , p. 191; Evans & Boyte, 1986 ; Polletta, 1999 ). For a free space to exist for poor people, community members need safety, trust, and the opportunity to communicate as equals on issues that matter in their lives. The official public spaces of the court system, a new...

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