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Dodge Commission

A body appointed by President William McKinley in 1898 to investigate charges of neglect that led to appalling conditions in U.S. military camps during the Spanish-American War (1898). It ...

Dodge Commission

Dodge Commission   Reference library

The Oxford Essential Dictionary of the U.S. Military

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002

... Commission a body appointed by President William McKinley in 1898 to investigate charges of neglect that led to appalling conditions in U.S. military camps during the Spanish-American War ( 1898 ). It was headed by Maj. Gen. Grenville Dodge , and its main conclusions were that lack of preparedness and bureaucratic inefficiency were to blame for supply shortages and failure to contain the outbreak of...

Dodge Commission

Dodge Commission  

A body appointed by President William McKinley in 1898 to investigate charges of neglect that led to appalling conditions in U.S. military camps during the Spanish-American War (1898). It was ...
The Cultural Politics of Indigenous Struggles and Aboriginal Riots

The Cultural Politics of Indigenous Struggles and Aboriginal Riots   Reference library

Barry Morris

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Crime, Media, and Popular Culture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
11,049 words

...Safety Preservation Act, 1986. Barry Morris 1. The Productivity Commission (November 2014) showed a 57 percent rise in the incarceration rates among Indigenous men, women, and children over the past 15 years. Cited in Jessica Kidd , “ Over-Representation of Indigenous Australians in Prison a Catastrophe,” says Mick Gooda, the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Social Justice Commissioner .” ABC News (December 5, 2014). 2. This witness of the events wishes to remain anonymous. 3. “Dodge City” is the local name given to the Aboriginal reserve at...

Bias Awareness and Bullying Prevention

Bias Awareness and Bullying Prevention   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Peace

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
2,247 words

...School Violence and Delinquency .” Journal of School Violence 6, no. 3 (2008): 89–112. Juvonen, Jaana , and Sandra Graham , eds. Peer Harassment in School: The Plight of the Vulnerable and Victimized . New York: Guilford Press, 2001. Kupersmidt, Janis B ., and Kenneth A. Dodge , eds. Children’s Peer Relations: From Development to Intervention . Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association, 2004. McMullen, Carol S . Creating a Bully-Free Classroom. New York: Scholastic, 2005. Olweus, Dan . Bullying at School: What We Know and What We Can Do. ...

High-Stakes Testing and Educational Inequality in K–12

High-Stakes Testing and Educational Inequality in K–12   Reference library

Ronald W. Solórzano

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Educational Psychology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2021
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
9,753 words

...use has served several purposes in public education such as retention and promotion of students, tracking and program placement, and teacher and school evaluation ( Croft, Roberts, & Stenhouse, 2015 ; Every Student Succeeds Act [ESSA], 2015 ; Glennie, Bonneau, Vandellen, & Dodge, 2012 ; No Child Left Behind [NCLB], 2002 ; National Research Council [NRC], 1999 ; Race To The Top [RTTT], 2009 ). Suffice it to say that tests are engrained in our educational system, performing a gate-keeping function for entry into selective programs such as Advanced...

Video Gaming, Crime, and Popular Culture

Video Gaming, Crime, and Popular Culture   Reference library

Timothy Rowlands, Sheruni Ratnabalasuriar, and Kyle Noel

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Crime, Media, and Popular Culture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
11,610 words

...released for the Atari 2600 and other early home consoles ( Donovan, 2010 ), Custer’s Revenge is a side-scrolling game in which players control a pixelated General Custer, naked but for his hat, boots, and cravat, as he runs across the screen, erect penis bouncing as he dodges arrows and cacti. On the far side the screen, he eventually reaches a Native American woman tied to a pole. There, to score points, he rapes her ( Kent, 2001 ). Protesters showed up at the first public exhibition of the game, and Atari even sued the game’s maker in hopes of...

Global Development and Crime

Global Development and Crime   Reference library

Mahesh K. Nalla, Gregory J. Howard, and Graeme R. Newman

The Oxford Encyclopedia of International Criminology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
15,411 words
Illustration(s):
7

...as crimes against information and tools such as software and hardware to operate computers. Many activities related to computer use occur in cyberspace with networked computers where corporations, consumers, and individuals interact and trade in information and commerce ( Dodge & Kitchin, 2003 ). Prominent political entities such as the White House and the United Nations went online in 1993 ( Zimmermann & Emspak, 2017 ). Increasingly, computers and networks became objects with which crimes against individuals, corporations, and governments were...

Vengeance in Popular Culture

Vengeance in Popular Culture   Reference library

Peter Robson

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Crime, Media, and Popular Culture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
15,876 words

.... As indicated this did not preclude the theme of revenge in the historical past and was, as we noted, typically encountered in westerns. The lone stranger coming to town to clean up the corruption and dominance of powerful interests is a theme we encounter time and again from Dodge City  92 to Shane . 93 The Essence of the Vigilante After the decline of the Code, vigilantism has flourished in film. The quintessential modern vigilante has been the character of Paul Kersey, played with world weary resignation by the actor Charles Bronson. We are talking about...

Shakespeare Head Press

Shakespeare Head Press   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
201 words

... 1907 when Bullen ’s financial ineptitude led to the Press’s ownership passing to Sidgwick ; Bullen continued to run it, however, as Sidgwick ’s tenant. Despite severe financial difficulties, circumvented by various dodges and loans, the Press published a series of reprints and new editions of English and classical texts, commissions from authors and publishers, and an edition of the Works of W. B. Yeats , with whom Bullen was friendly. Following Bullen ’s death in 1920 , the Press was acquired by a company formed by Basil *Blackwell , ...

Migrant Workers

Migrant Workers   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Social Work (20 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...10, 2007, from http://www.lwvelmhurst.org . Bureau of Western Hemisphere Affairs. (2003). U.S.–Mexico Binational Commission Labor Working Group Report . Retrieved January 10, 2007, from http://www.state.gov . Business for Social Responsibility. (2006). Migrant labor. Leading Perspectives , Fall. Retrieved January 20, 2007, from http://www.bsr.org . Commission on Security and Cooperation in Europe, United States Helsinki Commission. (2007). Combating hate crimes and discrimination in the OSCE. Retrieved December 8, 2007, from http://www.csce.gov ....

The Constitution of the United States and Foreign Relations

The Constitution of the United States and Foreign Relations   Reference library

Martin S. Flaherty

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Foreign Relations

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2021
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
11,183 words

...tradition, claimed the authority to terminate a treaty with Taiwan, a power unmentioned in the Constitution, and an issue to date dodged by the Supreme Court. 21 Not surprisingly, the trend toward broad assertions of executive foreign affairs authority accelerated after the attacks of 9/11. Among other things, President George W. Bush’s administration asserted the power to detain terrorism suspects and create military commissions in which to try them, assertions the court did not directly address even as it rejected rules against the executive on other...

Courts, the Law, and LGBT Rights in Asia

Courts, the Law, and LGBT Rights in Asia   Reference library

Holning Lau

The Oxford Encyclopedia of LGBT Politics and Policy

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2021
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
10,237 words

... 2010 , the Supreme Court of the Philippines held that the Philippines Elections Commission violated rights to expression, association, and equality when it denied accreditation to Ang Ladlad (Out of the Closet), a political party formed by individuals who openly identified as LGBT. The court said that the denial could not even satisfy a “rational basis” review that is deferential to the legislature ( Ang Ladlad LGBT Party v. Commission on Elections , 2010 ). The decision dodged the question of whether sexual orientation discrimination could ever trigger the...

Political biography

Political biography   Reference library

Oxford Companion to Australian Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
2,954 words

... Menzies , and Geoffrey Serle 's John Monash ( 1982 ), are much more influenced by social and cultural history, the problem of metropolis and periphery, and awareness of institutional formation than were the works of their predecessors. Pat Weller 's work on John Button , Dodging Raindrops ( 1999 ), encompasses the recent transformation of the Labor Party. Geoffrey Bolton 's Edmund Barton ( 2000 ) adopts reflexivity within a conventional form, hinging on a question, why was this ‘the one man for the job?’ and informed by consciousness of his own...

Iraq, US Invasion of

Iraq, US Invasion of   Reference library

Peter Sluglett

The Oxford Companion to International Relations

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
3,891 words

...to leave the country will continue to try to do so. [ See also Bush, George W. ; Iran-Iraq War ; Iraq ; 9/11 ; and United States Foreign Policy . ] Bibliography Allawi, Ali . The Occupation of Iraq: Winning the War, Losing the Peace . (New Haven, Conn., 2007). Dodge, Toby . “The Ideological Roots of Failure: The Application of Kinetic Neo-liberalism to Iraq.” International Affairs 86, no. 6 (2010): 1269–1286. Haddad, Fanar . Sectarianism in Iraq: Antagonistic Visions of Unity . (New York, 2011). Harling, Peter . “Beyond Political Ruptures:...

The Asia–Europe Meeting (ASEM)

The Asia–Europe Meeting (ASEM)   Reference library

Yeo Lay Hwee

The Oxford Encyclopedia of European Union Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2021
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
10,586 words

...of documents and invitations. It would also have an archival function and serve as a repository of information that would contribute to the institutional memory. Put simply, the AVS is a mere online platform and a self-service device for all ASEM members, the existence of which dodges the need to have a physical location with working staff. 6 The idea of an AVS was endorsed during the Helsinki summit but was never put in practice. Hence, the question over the coordination of the ASEM process, and a secretarial mechanism resurfaced after the Beijing summit. As...

Art-Informed Pedagogies in the Preparation of Teachers in the United States

Art-Informed Pedagogies in the Preparation of Teachers in the United States   Reference library

Melisa Cahnmann-Taylor and Lynn Sanders-Bustle

Oxford Encyclopedia of Global Perspectives on Teacher Education

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Education
Length:
9,616 words
Illustration(s):
5

... There are several arts programs in the United States that provide teachers with training in specific arts practices that offer ideas for their own instruction as well as experiences in the personal satisfaction of meaning-making through the arts. For example, since 1987 , the Dodge Poetry Program has been committed to giving New Jersey teachers and students meaningful, relevant, and revitalized experiences with poetry by sending poets to work, short-term, in 300 state schools. Since 1996 the American Academy of Poets has provided numerous online resources...

Israel: A Politically Monitored Military in a Militarized Society

Israel: A Politically Monitored Military in a Militarized Society   Reference library

Yagil Levy

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Military in Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
8,674 words

... Sharett, M. (1978). The diaries of Moshe Sharett . Tel Aviv, Israel: Sifriyat Maariv (Hebrew). Sheffer, G. , & Barak, O. (2013). Israel ’ s security networks: A theoretical and comparative perspective . New York, NY: Cambridge University Press. Starr, P. (2010). Dodging a bullet: Democracy’s gains in modern war. In E. Keir & R. R. Krebs (Eds.), In war ’ s wake: International conflict and the fate of liberal democracy (pp. 50–66). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press. Tilly, C. (1985). War making and state making as organized crime. In...

Wilsonianism

Wilsonianism   Reference library

Trygve Throntveit

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Foreign Relations

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2021
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
15,791 words

...delivered its final report on February 24, 1936. 64. E.g., Charles Beard, The Devil Theory of War (New York: The Vanguard Press, 1936). More sympathetic to Wilson, and blaming the capitalist system generally for the war, was C. Hartley Grattan, Preface to Chaos (New York: F. Dodge, 1936). 65. The plans are reprinted in Ruth B. Russell, A History of the United Nations Charter: The Role of the United States, 1940–1945 (Washington, DC: Brookings Institution, 1958), 472–485, 526–534. 66. John A. Thompson, “Wilsonianism: Dynamics of a Conflicted Concept,” ...

China

China   Reference library

Robin D. S. Yates, Kent G. Deng, Peter C. Perdue, Loren Brandt, and Barry Naughton

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
15,252 words
Illustration(s):
2

...the proportion of state-owned land was reduced, the registration represented a major step toward recognizing, monitoring, and regulating a predominantly private farming sector. The surveillance costs for the state proved to be increasingly high, however, as more and more people dodged taxes, despite relatively low tax rates. Despite tax and land reforms under Wang Anshi (1021–1086) , the state's finances were further weakened. Soon there was a trend toward absentee landlordism. Northern Song officials found a solution, by splitting land ownership and...

U.S. Military Service and LGBT Policy

U.S. Military Service and LGBT Policy   Reference library

Marissa Reilly, Elizabeth L. Hillman, and Elliot Koltnow

The Oxford Encyclopedia of LGBT Politics and Policy

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2021
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
11,655 words

...of exclusion waned ( Shilts, 1994 , p. 70). Although Navy discharge rates for homosexuality were as high as 1,600–1,700 per year in peacetime from 1963 to 1966 , in times of conflict they dropped, with only 643 discharges in 1969 ( Shilts, 1994 ). Heterosexuals hoping to dodge the draft by playing “hoaxosexual” were out of luck, as the military was on guard against malingerers hoping to avoid the increasingly unpopular war effort ( Shilts, 1994 , p. 67). Enlistees who admitted honestly to harboring “homosexual tendencies” were even pressured by...

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