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Overview

Dodge Commission

A body appointed by President William McKinley in 1898 to investigate charges of neglect that led to appalling conditions in U.S. military camps during the Spanish-American War (1898). It ...

legal services, demand and need for

legal services, demand and need for   Reference library

The New Oxford Companion to Law

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law
Length:
1,055 words

...to do so, because of ‘want of adequate supply or quality’. In a major study published in 1999 ( Paths to Justice: What People Do and Think about Going to Law (Oxford: Hart Publishing, 1999 ), Professor Hazel Genn sought to avoid some of the earlier definitional pitfalls. She dodged many of these by claiming to measure only the incidence of ‘justiciable events’ and what people did about them. A justiciable event was defined as a matter ‘experienced by a respondent which raised legal issues, whether or not it was recognised by the respondent as being “legal”...

Capitalism

Capitalism   Reference library

Herbert Hovenkamp

The Oxford Companion to the Supreme Court of the United States (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Law
Length:
6,469 words

...themselves. After Santa Clara individual shareholders could assert the constitutional rights of the corporation only if they brought a stockholders' derivative suit designed to force the corporation to defend its own rights. Such suits had been approved by the Court in Dodge v. Woolsey ( 1856 ). One of the most important doctrines facilitating the multistate business corporation during the late nineteenth century was that the states lacked the power to exclude “foreign” corporations, or those chartered in a different state, from doing business...

Legal Process

Legal Process   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, History
Length:
4,632 words
Illustration(s):
1

...legal process.” This new school sought to marry legal process values to constitutional idealism by deriving “substantive” rights in procedural principles. Understanding this development first requires a return to the matter of constitutional law. As noted, while Hart and Sacks dodged the great questions of judicial review, Bickel and Wellington implanted the notion that the Supreme Court should engage in a quiet, polite, even slightly covert interchange with legislatures over constitutional values. The next subgeneration of legal process scholars, partly...

Religious Law

Religious Law   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, History
Length:
5,164 words

...have been the view of Cicero himself: he is arguing rather that the combination of the pontificate with the civil law is actually harmful. The pontifex is tempted, Cicero believes, to abandon his defense of the traditional rules and use his knowledge of the civil law to think up dodges that will enable the citizen to avoid the sacred obligations it is his duty as pontifex to uphold. He is treating the relationship not so much as an ancient and revered part of the ancestral way (the mos maiorum ), but rather as a modern corruption. Also, whatever Cicero may...

Peru

Peru   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
7,999 words

...absolute control of the state apparatus and had successfully bribed politicians, businesspeople, and media owners to support his continued rule. Any opposition candidate with a slight chance was mercilessly attacked by the media. When one candidate, Alejandro Toledo, successfully dodged media attacks, international and national pressure forced President Fujimori into a second round of voting. When various kinds of poll fraud were revealed, Toledo decided to not further participate and urged his supporters to boycott the election process. International observers...

Brazil

Brazil   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
8,488 words

...guards in São Paulo in May 2006 , many public officials expressed their support for hard-line police tactics in response. In the wake of the attacks, the São Paulo police killed dozens of suspected members of the PCC, some of them apparently in summary executions (Cavallaro and Dodge, 2007 ). In such an atmosphere of polarization and fear, police, prosecutors, judges, and other officials committed to the defense of human rights do not necessarily form majorities within their organizations and may be afraid to condemn such heavy-handed actions for fear of...

Darfur

Darfur   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
8,127 words

...require further agreement before they can be implemented. As the international mediators came to acknowledge that the DPA would not bring peace to Darfur, they pushed harder for a UN-led peacekeeping mission, larger and more robust than AMIS. After repeated efforts to dodge the issue, claiming Darfur was a tribal conflict being adequately handled by the state, the Sudanese government finally agreed to a hybrid AU/UN force in which most of the soldiers were African. The Security Council formally approved the UN Mission in Darfur (UNAMID) on 31 July...

Iraq under Saddam Hussein

Iraq under Saddam Hussein   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
7,448 words

.... Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1978. CARDRI (Campaign against Repression and for Democratic Rights in Iraq). Iraq since the Gulf War: Prospects for Democracy . London: Zed Press, 1994. CARDRI. Saddam's Iraq: Revolution or Reaction? London: Zed Press, 1986. Dodge, Toby . Inventing Iraq: The Failure of Nation-Building and a History Denied . New York: Columbia University Press, 2003. Farouk-Sluglett, Marion , and Peter Sluglett . Iraq since 1958: from Revolution to Dictatorship . 3d rev. ed. London: I.B. Tauris, 2001. Graham-Brown, Sarah...

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