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Dodge Commission

A body appointed by President William McKinley in 1898 to investigate charges of neglect that led to appalling conditions in U.S. military camps during the Spanish-American War (1898). It ...

Dodge Commission

Dodge Commission   Reference library

The Oxford Essential Dictionary of the U.S. Military

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002

... Commission a body appointed by President William McKinley in 1898 to investigate charges of neglect that led to appalling conditions in U.S. military camps during the Spanish-American War ( 1898 ). It was headed by Maj. Gen. Grenville Dodge , and its main conclusions were that lack of preparedness and bureaucratic inefficiency were to blame for supply shortages and failure to contain the outbreak of...

de Véniard de Bourgmont, Étienne

de Véniard de Bourgmont, Étienne (1679–1725)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to World Exploration

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History
Length:
578 words

...In 1722–1723 , Bourgmont and his men built Fort d'Orléans as a base on the Missouri some two hundred miles from its junction with the Mississippi. On June 25, 1724 , two parties of Frenchmen departed accompanied by a hundred Missouri and sixty-four Osage warriors. Disease dodged them along the way, but on August 25 a small advance party reached the Comanche villages with two Comanche prisoners who were returned as a good-will gesture. On October 5 , the French and delegates from the Oto, Comanche, and Missouri met near a Kansas village to agree to a...

de Mendaña, Alvaro

de Mendaña, Alvaro (c. 1542–1595)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to World Exploration

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History
Length:
796 words

...guide a broken crew into the Philippines by mid-January 1596 . [See also Quirós, Pedro Fernández ; Solomon Islands ; and Terra Australis Incognita .] Mark Wentley Bibliography Beaglehole, J. C. The Exploration of the Pacific . 3rd ed. London: Adam and Charles Black, 1966. Dodge, Ernest S. Islands and Empires: Western Impact on the Pacific and East Asia . Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1976. Jack-Hinton, Colin . The Search for the Islands of Solomon, 1567–1838 . Oxford, U.K.: Clarendon Press, 1969. Spate, O. H. K. The Spanish Lake ....

Shakespeare Head Press

Shakespeare Head Press   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
201 words

... 1907 when Bullen ’s financial ineptitude led to the Press’s ownership passing to Sidgwick ; Bullen continued to run it, however, as Sidgwick ’s tenant. Despite severe financial difficulties, circumvented by various dodges and loans, the Press published a series of reprints and new editions of English and classical texts, commissions from authors and publishers, and an edition of the Works of W. B. Yeats , with whom Bullen was friendly. Following Bullen ’s death in 1920 , the Press was acquired by a company formed by Basil *Blackwell , ...

Detroit Riots

Detroit Riots   Reference library

Encyclopedia of African American History 1896 to the Present

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,820 words
Illustration(s):
1

...in the country, including the Dodge Revolutionary Union Movement ( DRUM ) and the League of Revolutionary Black Workers. The rioting in Detroit caused President Lyndon B. Johnson to establish the National Advisory Commission on Civil Disorders, headed by the Illinois governor Otto Kerner . In February 1968 the Kerner Commission, as it came to be known, issued a report that highlighted police brutality, poverty, and racial inequality as leading causes of the rioting in Detroit and throughout the country, and the commission recommended numerous measures...

World War I

World War I   Reference library

Black Women in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
4,757 words
Illustration(s):
1

...facilities: Camps Custer (Michigan), Grant (Illinois), Funston (Kansas), Dodge (Iowa), Dix (New Jersey), Sherman (Ohio), Meade (Maryland), Taylor (Kentucky), Green (North Carolina), Gordon (Georgia), Alexander and Lee (Virginia), Jackson and Wadsworth (South Carolina), and Travis (Texas). Upton also served as the training center for supervisors assigned to other hostess houses. By the summer of 1918 , training had been received by Mable Whiting for Funston, Amanda Gray for Dodge, Callie Edwards and Mary Cromwell for Dix, and Ruth Hucles for...

Drugs, Illicit.

Drugs, Illicit.   Reference library

David T. Courtwright

The Oxford Companion to United States History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
2,340 words

...prescription. Teenage boys were avid customers for “decks” of cocaine and heroin (a semisynthetic derivative of morphine) peddled in slums and vice districts. Opium prepared for smoking was also available, though more often supplied by smugglers and illegal manufacturers who dodged the heavy customs duty. The cliché that the 1914 Harrison Narcotic Act created the black market and drug subcultures of twentieth-century America is a political myth. Illegal sales, smuggling, and underworld use flourished decades before the Harrison Act. Drug abuse and...

The Constitution of the United States and Foreign Relations

The Constitution of the United States and Foreign Relations   Reference library

Martin S. Flaherty

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Foreign Relations

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2021
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
11,183 words

...tradition, claimed the authority to terminate a treaty with Taiwan, a power unmentioned in the Constitution, and an issue to date dodged by the Supreme Court. 21 Not surprisingly, the trend toward broad assertions of executive foreign affairs authority accelerated after the attacks of 9/11. Among other things, President George W. Bush’s administration asserted the power to detain terrorism suspects and create military commissions in which to try them, assertions the court did not directly address even as it rejected rules against the executive on other...

Legal Process

Legal Process   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, History
Length:
4,632 words
Illustration(s):
1

...legal process.” This new school sought to marry legal process values to constitutional idealism by deriving “substantive” rights in procedural principles. Understanding this development first requires a return to the matter of constitutional law. As noted, while Hart and Sacks dodged the great questions of judicial review, Bickel and Wellington implanted the notion that the Supreme Court should engage in a quiet, polite, even slightly covert interchange with legislatures over constitutional values. The next subgeneration of legal process scholars, partly...

Military, Black Women in The

Military, Black Women in The   Reference library

Black Women in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
6,442 words
Illustration(s):
2

...World War I utilized the media, black churches, and her club to solicit aid that manifested itself mostly in canning jelly for black servicemen confined to hospitals, knitting various items of clothing, making flags, and serving as camp mothers to the 366th Infantry at Camp Dodge, Iowa. Statewide the group raised more than six thousand dollars in Liberty War Bonds. Mary McLeod Bethune , a later NACW president, worked with the Emergency Circle, Negro War Relief in Florida. Black women in Colorado formed the Negro Women’s Auxiliary War Council, a Negro...

Legal Profession

Legal Profession   Reference library

Black Women in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
10,902 words
Illustration(s):
2

... 1932 graduate of Fordham Law School, was an assistant district attorney in New York City who was instrumental in the successful investigation and prosecution of the biggest organized crime case in the nation’s history. Working with New York County District Attorney William C. Dodge , then with Special Prosecutor Thomas E. Dewey, Carter exposed the racketeering that flourished in New York City and the corruption of the magistrate’s court to which she was assigned. In recognition, she was appointed the assistant district attorney in charge of the Court of...

Conrad, Joseph

Conrad, Joseph   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Maritime History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Military History
Length:
6,670 words
Illustration(s):
1

...into the life of most men.” But by 1915 , in the author’s note to Within the Tides , he is aware of increasing distance between his readers and knowledge of a very specialized sea world: “The problem was to make unfamiliar things credible.” One early answer was a bit of a dodge: plant seafarers inside the voyage tales as listeners who could mediate between the narrator and readers. Since these listeners remain silent much of the time in “Youth,” they do not magically re-create the missing context of professional seamanship. The trouble is, they are not...

Organized Labor

Organized Labor   Reference library

Encyclopedia of African American History 1896 to the Present

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
7,977 words
Illustration(s):
1

...in power of acting as Uncle Toms. So frustrated and discontented did some younger black unionists become with the putative egalitarian leaders of their unions by the late 1960s that in the UAW they formed the Ford Revolutionary Union Movement ( FRUM ) with its counterpart in Dodge ( DRUM ), and the more militant among such young black trade unionists formed the trans-union League of Revolutionary Black Workers. More conventional trade union issues also drove a wedge between black workers and white labor leaders. The Civil Rights Act of 1964 , the agencies...

Religious Law

Religious Law   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, History
Length:
5,164 words

...have been the view of Cicero himself: he is arguing rather that the combination of the pontificate with the civil law is actually harmful. The pontifex is tempted, Cicero believes, to abandon his defense of the traditional rules and use his knowledge of the civil law to think up dodges that will enable the citizen to avoid the sacred obligations it is his duty as pontifex to uphold. He is treating the relationship not so much as an ancient and revered part of the ancestral way (the mos maiorum ), but rather as a modern corruption. Also, whatever Cicero may...

Africa

Africa   Reference library

Thomas P. Ofcansky, Patrick Mbajekwe, Christopher Saunders, E. S. Atieno Odhiambo, Robert I. Rotberg, and Justin Corfield

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
11,411 words

... ( 1889–1970 ), remained in the same place for much of their time (in Mozambique and the Congo, respectively), while others such as William Harrison Anderson ( 1870–1950 ) traveled extensively throughout Africa. A few, like Ralph E. Dodge ( b. 1907 ), were to become important in the history of late colonial Africa. Dodge worked in Angola—then a Portuguese colony—and managed to persuade the Portuguese authorities to give a scholarship to António Agostinho Neto to study medicine in Lisbon. Neto later led the nationalists in Angola, which achieved...

Rome

Rome   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
34,176 words
Illustration(s):
8

...infuriating. A feast of ideas and essential reading for the serious scholar. Connolly, Peter , and Hazel Dodge . The Ancient City: Life in Classical Athens and Rome . Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 1998. Connolly, a professional artist, and Dodge, a classical scholar, present an attractive and historically informed picture book providing reconstructions of the ancient city from many perspectives. Coulston, Jon , and Hazel Dodge , eds. Ancient Rome: The Archaeology of the Eternal City . Oxford: Oxford University School of Archaeology,...

Wilsonianism

Wilsonianism   Reference library

Trygve Throntveit

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Foreign Relations

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2021
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
15,791 words

...delivered its final report on February 24, 1936. 64. E.g., Charles Beard, The Devil Theory of War (New York: The Vanguard Press, 1936). More sympathetic to Wilson, and blaming the capitalist system generally for the war, was C. Hartley Grattan, Preface to Chaos (New York: F. Dodge, 1936). 65. The plans are reprinted in Ruth B. Russell, A History of the United Nations Charter: The Role of the United States, 1940–1945 (Washington, DC: Brookings Institution, 1958), 472–485, 526–534. 66. John A. Thompson, “Wilsonianism: Dynamics of a Conflicted Concept,” ...

Poetry

Poetry   Reference library

Black Women in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
11,676 words
Illustration(s):
1

...and Tia Chucha Press. One of Lightfoot’s strong poems, “Between the Thighs of the Sky,” is a tribute to conga drummer Skai Shadow . Another workshop graduate is the Detroit native Shayla Hawkins . She has won the Detroit Writer’s Guild Paul Laurence Dunbar Award, Geraldine Dodge Poetry Festival Award, and an Art Serve Michigan Creative Artist Grant. Her poetry enjoys international exposure in Drumvoices , Graffiti Rag , Paris/Atlantic , Obsidian II , and Calabash . Renée K. Moore is also a Cave Canem graduate. A native Chicagoan with New Orleans...

Technology and US Foreign Relations

Technology and US Foreign Relations   Reference library

Michael A. Krysko

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Foreign Relations

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2021
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
20,928 words

...in the 1860s, the Americans gained the decisive advantage over their indigenous rivals during the duration of the century. Even the temporary disruption of the US Civil War failed to abate this steady rise toward continental dominance. Writing in 1873 , US Army Colonel Richard Dodge noted how in just a decade, the Plains Indians went from having ample food to being “reduced to the condition of paupers, without food, shelter, clothing or any of the necessities of life which came from the buffalo.” 4 Concurrent to this century-long process of westward expansion...

United States

United States   Reference library

Paul Finkelman, Paul Finkelman, Paul Finkelman, Kate Sampsell-Willmann, Justin Hart, Christopher T. Fisher, Ronald W. Schatz, David F. Schmitz, and Ken Burnside

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
33,669 words
Illustration(s):
12

...grace period offered by the president. Retirees, military controllers, and management took over remaining posts. No planes crashed and the nation's air system quickly resumed, barely disturbed. Reagan's bold action in turn led private corporations such as Greyhound, Phelps Dodge, Hormel, TWA, Pittson Coal, and Caterpillar to follow suit. The same was true with welfare reform. Accepting the conservatives' critique of the Aid-to-Dependent-Children program, Clinton promised to “end welfare as we know it” during his 1992 presidential campaign. Prodded by...

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