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Dodge Commission

A body appointed by President William McKinley in 1898 to investigate charges of neglect that led to appalling conditions in U.S. military camps during the Spanish-American War (1898). It ...

Detroit Riots

Detroit Riots   Reference library

Encyclopedia of African American History 1896 to the Present

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,820 words
Illustration(s):
1

...in the country, including the Dodge Revolutionary Union Movement ( DRUM ) and the League of Revolutionary Black Workers. The rioting in Detroit caused President Lyndon B. Johnson to establish the National Advisory Commission on Civil Disorders, headed by the Illinois governor Otto Kerner . In February 1968 the Kerner Commission, as it came to be known, issued a report that highlighted police brutality, poverty, and racial inequality as leading causes of the rioting in Detroit and throughout the country, and the commission recommended numerous measures...

Fuller, R. Buckminster

Fuller, R. Buckminster (12 July 1895)   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of American Art

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
1,832 words
Illustration(s):
1

...design continued until 1948 when he published designs for a car developed a few years earlier for the Kaiser Corporation. The Dymaxion bathroom ( 1937 ), a prefabricated pressed metal combined unit, begun at the Pierce Foundation, was not developed until he joined the Phelps Dodge Corporation as Assistant Director of Research ( 1936–8 ). A year studying world economic and material resources as a consultant to Fortune magazine followed before he set up the second Dymaxion company in 1941 and produced the Dymaxion Deployment Units in association with the...

Kültepe Texts

Kültepe Texts   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
2,055 words
Illustration(s):
1

...on textiles, four pounds of tin per donkey load), and a right of preemption of ten percent of the textiles. Anatolian rulers promised to make good losses from brigands and occasionally (?) to prevent other (Babylonian) traders from entering their territory. Assyrians who tried to dodge the taxes by smuggling could be fined and jailed, and local rulers and officials harming Assyrians or refusing to pay their debts could be boycotted. On the whole, losses and conflicts were exceptional because both parties, profiting from the trade, stuck to the agreements. The...

World War I

World War I   Reference library

Black Women in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
4,757 words
Illustration(s):
1

...facilities: Camps Custer (Michigan), Grant (Illinois), Funston (Kansas), Dodge (Iowa), Dix (New Jersey), Sherman (Ohio), Meade (Maryland), Taylor (Kentucky), Green (North Carolina), Gordon (Georgia), Alexander and Lee (Virginia), Jackson and Wadsworth (South Carolina), and Travis (Texas). Upton also served as the training center for supervisors assigned to other hostess houses. By the summer of 1918 , training had been received by Mable Whiting for Funston, Amanda Gray for Dodge, Callie Edwards and Mary Cromwell for Dix, and Ruth Hucles for...

Legal Process

Legal Process   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, History
Length:
4,632 words
Illustration(s):
1

...legal process.” This new school sought to marry legal process values to constitutional idealism by deriving “substantive” rights in procedural principles. Understanding this development first requires a return to the matter of constitutional law. As noted, while Hart and Sacks dodged the great questions of judicial review, Bickel and Wellington implanted the notion that the Supreme Court should engage in a quiet, polite, even slightly covert interchange with legislatures over constitutional values. The next subgeneration of legal process scholars, partly...

Military, Black Women in The

Military, Black Women in The   Reference library

Black Women in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
6,442 words
Illustration(s):
2

...World War I utilized the media, black churches, and her club to solicit aid that manifested itself mostly in canning jelly for black servicemen confined to hospitals, knitting various items of clothing, making flags, and serving as camp mothers to the 366th Infantry at Camp Dodge, Iowa. Statewide the group raised more than six thousand dollars in Liberty War Bonds. Mary McLeod Bethune , a later NACW president, worked with the Emergency Circle, Negro War Relief in Florida. Black women in Colorado formed the Negro Women’s Auxiliary War Council, a Negro...

Legal Profession

Legal Profession   Reference library

Black Women in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
10,902 words
Illustration(s):
2

... 1932 graduate of Fordham Law School, was an assistant district attorney in New York City who was instrumental in the successful investigation and prosecution of the biggest organized crime case in the nation’s history. Working with New York County District Attorney William C. Dodge , then with Special Prosecutor Thomas E. Dewey, Carter exposed the racketeering that flourished in New York City and the corruption of the magistrate’s court to which she was assigned. In recognition, she was appointed the assistant district attorney in charge of the Court of...

Conrad, Joseph

Conrad, Joseph   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Maritime History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Military History
Length:
6,670 words
Illustration(s):
1

...into the life of most men.” But by 1915 , in the author’s note to Within the Tides , he is aware of increasing distance between his readers and knowledge of a very specialized sea world: “The problem was to make unfamiliar things credible.” One early answer was a bit of a dodge: plant seafarers inside the voyage tales as listeners who could mediate between the narrator and readers. Since these listeners remain silent much of the time in “Youth,” they do not magically re-create the missing context of professional seamanship. The trouble is, they are not...

Architecture

Architecture   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of American Art

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
5,026 words
Illustration(s):
2

...in this field was Albert Kahn, admired by Walter Gropius and Le Corbusier , designing concrete-frame factories for car manufacturers in Detroit, such as the Packard and Ford plants of 1905 and 1908–10 . Kahn pioneered new methods such as wide-span steel trusses in his Dodge Half-Ton Truck Plant ( 1937 ), Detroit. During the Depression of the 1930s, functional utilitarianism was also employed in public works projects, such as the Kentucky Dam ( 1938–44 ), designed by Roland Wank . Bringing disparate elements together, Bertram Goodhue designed the...

Organized Labor

Organized Labor   Reference library

Encyclopedia of African American History 1896 to the Present

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
7,977 words
Illustration(s):
1

...in power of acting as Uncle Toms. So frustrated and discontented did some younger black unionists become with the putative egalitarian leaders of their unions by the late 1960s that in the UAW they formed the Ford Revolutionary Union Movement ( FRUM ) with its counterpart in Dodge ( DRUM ), and the more militant among such young black trade unionists formed the trans-union League of Revolutionary Black Workers. More conventional trade union issues also drove a wedge between black workers and white labor leaders. The Civil Rights Act of 1964 , the agencies...

Band

Band   Reference library

Raoul F. Camus

The Grove Dictionary of American Music (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Music, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
10,499 words
Illustration(s):
2

...in the standard instrumentation established for the use of U.S. army bands.” In many western communities the only music available was that provided by the local military post band. While most were unknown outside their own areas, some had famous directors, such as the Fort Dodge (Iowa) Military Band, led for 38 years by Karl L. King , and the Long Beach (California) Municipal Band led by Herbert L. Clarke , then J.J. Richards . There were fraternal and sororal organizations such as the many Shrine bands led by Henry Fillmore , Fred Jewell , Ned...

United States of America

United States of America   Reference library

Tim Troy

The Oxford Companion to the Photograph

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
4,588 words
Illustration(s):
1

...of individuals; they are not in fact portraits. Rather, their purpose as scientific documents was to contribute to a typology of human beings, a project that reduced the sitters to bodies representative of racial types. And yet the images fall short of this function as well. Dodging both the conventions of portraiture and the requirements of scientific evidence, Zealy's daguerreotypes manage to capture something more than the appearance of specific men and women by documenting aspects of the power relationship that characterized American slavery. In the...

Rome (Ostia-Portus)

Rome (Ostia-Portus)   Reference library

Rabun M. Taylor

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
7,053 words
Illustration(s):
1

...of Hadrian’s many urban and architectural projects in Rome. Claridge, Amanda . Rome: An Oxford Archaeological Guide . 2d ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010. The definitive English-language field guide to the archaeological remains of Rome. Coulston, Jon , and Hazel Dodge , eds. Ancient Rome: The Archaeology of the Eternal City . Oxford: Oxford University School of Archaeology, 2000. This collection of articles approaches the city thematically. Individual articles discuss the city as it related to such matters as the military, construction, food...

Social Justice, Anti-Poverty Work, and Religion

Social Justice, Anti-Poverty Work, and Religion   Reference library

Lara Rusch, R. Khari Brown, Ronald E. Brown, and Francine Banner

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Politics and Religion

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Religion
Length:
7,930 words
Illustration(s):
3

...these “free spaces,” “protected spaces,” and “cultural laboratories,” where otherwise marginalized voices can support each other, raise consciousness of shared experience, develop relational practices and leadership skills, and ultimately influence public debate and policy ( Dodge, 2011 , p. 191; Evans & Boyte, 1986 ; Polletta, 1999 ). For a free space to exist for poor people, community members need safety, trust, and the opportunity to communicate as equals on issues that matter in their lives. The official public spaces of the court system, a new...

Art-Informed Pedagogies in the Preparation of Teachers in the United States

Art-Informed Pedagogies in the Preparation of Teachers in the United States   Reference library

Melisa Cahnmann-Taylor and Lynn Sanders-Bustle

Oxford Encyclopedia of Global Perspectives on Teacher Education

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Education
Length:
9,616 words
Illustration(s):
5

... There are several arts programs in the United States that provide teachers with training in specific arts practices that offer ideas for their own instruction as well as experiences in the personal satisfaction of meaning-making through the arts. For example, since 1987 , the Dodge Poetry Program has been committed to giving New Jersey teachers and students meaningful, relevant, and revitalized experiences with poetry by sending poets to work, short-term, in 300 state schools. Since 1996 the American Academy of Poets has provided numerous online resources...

Roman Republic and Empire

Roman Republic and Empire   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Classical Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Classical studies
Length:
9,431 words
Illustration(s):
3

...xli (1951), pp. 89–104 J. B. Ward-Perkins : The Marble Trade and its Organisation: Evidence from Nicomedia , Mem. Amer. Acad. Rome , xxxvi (1980), pp. 325–38 J. B. Ward-Perkins : Nicomedia and the Marble Trade , Pap. Brit. Sch. Rome , n. s., xxxv (1980), pp. 23–69 H. Dodge : Notes on Luxury Building Stones in Asia Minor , Yayla , iv (1981), pp. 8–11 R. Duncan-Jones : The Economy of the Roman Empire: Quantitative Studies (Cambridge, 1982) H. Walda and S. Walker : The Art and Architecture of Lepcis Magna: Marble Origins by Isotopic Analysis...

Global Development and Crime

Global Development and Crime   Reference library

Mahesh K. Nalla, Gregory J. Howard, and Graeme R. Newman

The Oxford Encyclopedia of International Criminology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
15,411 words
Illustration(s):
7

...as crimes against information and tools such as software and hardware to operate computers. Many activities related to computer use occur in cyberspace with networked computers where corporations, consumers, and individuals interact and trade in information and commerce ( Dodge & Kitchin, 2003 ). Prominent political entities such as the White House and the United Nations went online in 1993 ( Zimmermann & Emspak, 2017 ). Increasingly, computers and networks became objects with which crimes against individuals, corporations, and governments were...

Rome

Rome   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
34,176 words
Illustration(s):
8

...infuriating. A feast of ideas and essential reading for the serious scholar. Connolly, Peter , and Hazel Dodge . The Ancient City: Life in Classical Athens and Rome . Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 1998. Connolly, a professional artist, and Dodge, a classical scholar, present an attractive and historically informed picture book providing reconstructions of the ancient city from many perspectives. Coulston, Jon , and Hazel Dodge , eds. Ancient Rome: The Archaeology of the Eternal City . Oxford: Oxford University School of Archaeology,...

USA

USA   Reference library

David M. Kennedy, D'Ann Campbell, Richard Jensen, Richard Chapman, D'Ann Campbell, Richard Jensen, I. C. B. Dear, Shelby Stanton, David M. Kennedy, Jeffrey J. Safford, and Clayton R. Koppes

The Oxford Companion to World War II

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
22,261 words
Illustration(s):
8

...car production suspended for the duration, the great automobile companies retooled radically. They converted their old assembly lines to make aircraft and tank gear, and the government built new plants for them, such as Ford's gigantic Willow Run bomber plant or the even larger Dodge engine plant in Chicago. The rifles, cannon, shells, and ammunition for the forces were made primarily in government arsenals. Located typically in small towns known to have a surplus of labour, they employed 486,000 workers in 1943 , as against 22,000 in 1940 . Shipyards...

Calligraphy

Calligraphy   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
13,590 words
Illustration(s):
10

...(Déroche group E) seem to approach cursive. Early Abbasid scripts differed considerably from the scripts used in daily life and were difficult for the untrain-ed to read, so old forms began to be replaced by cursive ones. al-Nadim: Fihrist [Index] (987–8); Eng. trans., ed. B. Dodge as The Fihrist of al-Nadīm: A Tenth-century Survey of Muslim Culture, 2 vols. (New York, 1970) M. Amari : “Bibliographie primitive du Coran,” annotated by H. Dérembourg , Centenario della nascita di M. Amari , i (Palermo, 1910), pp. 5–22 G. Bergsträsser : “ Zur ältesten...

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