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camber

Subject: History

1 The athwartships curve of a ship's deck, usually giving a fall towards the sides of a quarter of an inch (6.35 mm) to each foot (30.5 cm). 2 A small ...

aerofoil

aerofoil   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Mechanical Engineering (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Science and technology, Engineering and Technology
Length:
188 words
Illustration(s):
1

...gives rise to lower pressures on one surface ( suction surface ) compared with the other ( pressure surface ) when moving through a fluid. The leading edge is the front part of an aerofoil about which an oncoming flow divides, while the trailing edge is the rear edge. The camber line is a curve constructed midway between the upper and lower surfaces of an aerofoil, while the chord line ( chord ) is a straight line between the leading and trailing edges, the length of which is termed the chord length . The angle of attack ( α ‎ ) is the angle...

Comber

Comber   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of Family Names of Ireland

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2021
Subject:
Names studies
Length:
187 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Variants: Comer Frequency 1911: 161 Main location (1847–64): Mayo and Galway (1911): Galway, Mayo, Limerick, Roscommon, Dublin, Westmeath 1 English: occupational name from Middle English camber , camer , comber , comer , usually ‘one who combs or cards wool’, but occasionally ‘one who makes carding combs’. The post-medieval bearers of Comber below are likely to belong with (2). Early bearers: William le Comber, 1299 in CDI §968 (Trim, Meath); Henry le Comber, 1310 in Justiciary Rolls (Ireland) (Louth); John le Comber, 1311 in Justiciary...

hill-slope creep

hill-slope creep   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Earth

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Science and technology, Earth Sciences and Geography
Length:
576 words
Illustration(s):
1

...density of the regolith or rock layer, and the angle of slope. Where all these are moderate to high, overburden pressure from overlying strata (caprock) or constructions (walls, power poles, buildings, etc.) can readily induce creep. This in turn may lead to the slumping or cambering of the slope, the bulging of valley sides, and the downslope curvature of surficial strata. Creep is often referred to as ‘soil creep’, but strictly this refers to two distinct mechanisms that primarily operate within a regolith environment, although they may also affect loose...

arch

arch   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Architecture (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2021
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
2,191 words
Illustration(s):
2

...using five or seven centres to give a similar shape; back : see rear ; basket : see anse de panier ; bell : arch supported on two corbels with curved faces above the reveals, so that the resulting compound curve of the opening resembles a bell; Caernarfon : see Welsh ; camber : flat with a slight upward curve to the intrados, or a very low segmental ; canted : similar to a corbel , but with straight haunches set at an angle of 45°; catenary : formed like an inverted catenary , similar to parabolic , but less sharp and more elegant; compound :...

truss

truss   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Architecture (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2021
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
819 words
Illustration(s):
1

...roof-structure include : aisle : in timber -framed work a complete aisled structure set over the tie -beams; Belfast or bowstring : of timber, for spans of up to 15 metres, with a segmental top member joined to a horizontal lower chord , string , or tie (sometimes slightly cambered) by inclined lattice -members; box-framed : complete cross-frame the entire height of the building in a box-framed structure; closed : with spaces between its members filled in (e.g. between rooms or at gable -ends); common rafter : type of roof constructed of pairs of...

periglacial landscapes

periglacial landscapes   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Earth

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Science and technology, Earth Sciences and Geography
Length:
1,382 words
Illustration(s):
4

...erosion of ice-rich permafrost. The creep in situ of permafrost, especially as it thaws, may also cause large-scale deformation structures in sedimentary strata. These include uparching beneath valley bottoms (valley bulging) and bending, deformation, and sliding on slopes (cambering and joint widening, or ‘gull’ formation). These structures are known to occur in middle latitudes where formerly frozen, fine-grained (i.e. ice-rich) strata are overlain by more coherent (i.e. less ice-rich) beds. Fig. 2. A tundra landscape of the Low Arctic, Sachs River...

Docks and Slips

Docks and Slips   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Maritime History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Military History
Length:
2,365 words
Illustration(s):
5

...or at the bow of the vessel at the last stage of the launching, when bow pressures may become very high. This means that the calculations for the exact slope must be made before the assembly of the ship on the slipway. Sliding ways are usually straight or sometimes with camber. Cranes and scaffolding are completely different. Before launching, the assembled weight of a ship on the berth is transferred from the keel blocks to the launching way, which consists of a standing way and a cradle on which the ship moves. A suitable lubricant between the two...

Timpani

Timpani   Reference library

James Blades and Edmund A. Bowles

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
11,951 words
Illustration(s):
1

...and emphasizes lower harmonics. The deeper the bowl, however, the greater the tendency for pitch to flatten on impact. Most modern makers prescribe that the depth of the bowl should equal one half of its diameter. Some bowls are semicircular, others parabolic or with sloping (cambered) sides. No final formula has been agreed upon, and a wide range of types is encountered. Tonal differences are compensated for in part by the timpanist, who can, for example, adjust the striking position to suit the depth of the bowl: reasonably close to the rim for a deeper...

Timber structure

Timber structure   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Medieval Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Art & Architecture, History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
10,505 words
Illustration(s):
4

...great halls. In vernacular buildings crucks and principal-rafter roofs predominated in the west, crown-post roofs in the east. There was little significant innovation; the exceptions were in churches, where the Perpendicular style encouraged the use of low-pitched king-post and camber-beam roofs, and in north-eastern England, where a new school developed after 1350 . Ornate roofs were rare in the region, but new forms included the truncated-principal roof, the Pennine king-post roof, and a simple roof with purlins trapped by raking queen-posts. In the 16th...

Violin

Violin   Reference library

David D. Boyden, Peter Walls, Peter Holman, Karel Moens, Robin Stowell, Peter Cooke, and Alastair Dick

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
22,677 words
Illustration(s):
10

... Peccatte (1810–74), Joseph Henry (1823–70), Simon (1808–81), and Voirin (1833–85) also challenged the supremacy of Tourte’s legacy, striving for a lighter, more elegant product. Particularly characteristic were the slimmer and less square profile of the head and the different camber, the progression of which was moved closer to the head for additional strength in the stick. The balance was redressed by a reduction in the diameter of the lower end of the stick, with the frog appropriately in proportion. Outstanding among Voirin’s successors were Louis and Claude...

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