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Overview

strategic misrepresentation

In planning and budgeting, the tendency for those presenting projects for approval knowingly to understate costs and overstate benefits. This is a matter of deliberate policy and thus ...

Ancient Trade Routes

Ancient Trade Routes   Reference library

Oxford Bible Atlas (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
972 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

...important was his establishment of a fleet of ships at Ezion‐geber at the northern end of the Gulf of Aqaba, with access to the Red Sea. This was achieved in partnership with Hiram of Tyre ( 1 Kgs. 9: 26–8 ). The significance of this must be seen in conjunction with the much misrepresented story of the visit of the Queen of Sheba from south Arabia. For all her apparent interest in Solomon's wisdom, it is perhaps his commercial wisdom which was particularly attractive and the primary purpose of the relationship was probably trade. She came bearing gold and...

Psalms

Psalms   Reference library

C. S. Rodd and C. S. Rodd

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
62,266 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
3

...Psalter ( e. 14) is an indication that some, perhaps all, of the psalms are self-conscious poetic creations. Certainly an awareness of the skill of the poet will add to our appreciation of the psalms. There is, nevertheless, a danger that modern conventions and fashions will misrepresent the intentions and art of the poet. Once again we are faced with the ‘then’ and the ‘now’, and every literary approach needs to be tempered with a sense of the historical. 14. It will be seen that the demands made upon the commentary writer are immense. Certainly it is quite...

Signaling in Foreign Policy

Signaling in Foreign Policy   Reference library

Erik A. Gartzke, Shannon Carcelli, J Andres Gannon, and Jiakun Jack Zhang

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Foreign Policy Analysis

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
11,641 words
Illustration(s):
1

...interest and academic study. Because most foreign policy outcomes depend on the strategic interaction of multiple actors, the behavior of one actor depends on their expectations about the intent and capabilities of others. But in both zero-sum interactions, such as bargaining over territory, or nonzero-sum interactions, such as negotiating a trade agreement, actors face problems of incomplete information and credible commitment because they each have incentives to misrepresent their own capabilities and resolve while communicating with other players to get a...

The Empirical Promise of Game Theory

The Empirical Promise of Game Theory   Reference library

Alexandre Debs

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Empirical International Relations Theory

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
9,671 words
Illustration(s):
3

...dimensions of proliferation by placing it in its strategic context, that is, by looking not only at the incentives of would-be proliferators, but at the interaction of the potential proliferator, its enemies and allies. Game theory is especially well suited to analyze such scenarios. 26 Methodologically, we may also want to combine such a strategic analysis with qualitative evidence. Few states seriously considered a nuclear-weapons option. It would be particularly helpful to understand the strategic situation of actual proliferators, and compare them...

Negotiation in Foreign Policy

Negotiation in Foreign Policy   Reference library

Kristopher W. Ramsay

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Foreign Policy Analysis

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
7,643 words
Illustration(s):
4

...share of the territory by misrepresenting itself as the high-demanding type and say country 1 can take no more than x for itself. Moreover, since war never happened, country 1 would never know if country 2 would fight had it made the larger demand. As a result of this incentive to misrepresent , the two (or possibly more) countries cannot easily resolve their uncertainty without some costly actions or without accounting for some larger part of the bargaining context. Therefore, in this basic framework, the incentive to misrepresent ensures that the...

Empirical Evidence for Empirical International Relations Theorizing: Tests of Epistemological Assumptions With Data

Empirical Evidence for Empirical International Relations Theorizing: Tests of Epistemological Assumptions With Data   Reference library

Brian C. Rathbun

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Empirical International Relations Theory

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
6,080 words
Illustration(s):
2

...against costs in a utilitarian fashion. In this way, Lake and Powell’s ( 1999 ) “strategic choice” approach fits hand and glove with Bueno de Mesquita’s ( 2014 ) “selectorate” theory of politics. The latter’s framework draws heavily on Fearon’s ( 1994 ) insights about how domestic institutions affect the ability of states to signal their interests and Fearon’s ( 1995 ) argument that war results from commitment and uncertainty problems given state incentives to misrepresent their true preferences. Economic libertarians have a particular set of prescriptive...

Theories of Civil War Onset: Promises and Pitfalls

Theories of Civil War Onset: Promises and Pitfalls   Reference library

Adrian Florea

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Empirical International Relations Theory

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
9,719 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Information asymmetries occur because opponents have rational incentives to misrepresent information about capabilities and resolve. Walter ( 2009 , p. 246) held that information asymmetries are particularly acute in civil war situations for at least two reasons: (a) Because rebels operate clandestinely, governments often have trouble monitoring their capabilities and strategies; (b) Because insurgents are generally weaker than the government, they have strong incentives to misrepresent their military prowess and determination to fight in order to bolster their...

Vietnam War

Vietnam War   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Australian Military History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
2,344 words
Illustration(s):
2

...War The Vietnam War was the longest and arguably the most divisive Australian military involvement in our history. It is also the least understood, and the most misrepresented. Australia had recognised the French-created government of Bao Dai in February 1950 , on the same day as the United States, and in the later 1950s had declared support for the regime of Ngo Dinh Diem , at American behest. Support for South Vietnam, and involvement in the Laotian crisis of 1961 , were part of Australia's broader commitment to the policy of containment of...

Spatial and Temporal Interdependence

Spatial and Temporal Interdependence   Reference library

Michael Colaresi and Jude C. Hays

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
10,289 words
Illustration(s):
3

...advantages, and make war-of-attrition (strategic delay or inaction) dynamics likely. Conversely, negative externalities create strategic complementarity, with policies moving in the same direction, yielding early-mover advantages and competitive races. Diffusion and other forms of interdependence are substantively central to the study of international relations. In international political economy, economic globalization implies both strategic and nonstrategic interdependence of domestic politics, policy makers, and policies. In conflict studies,...

Prospective Memory and Cognitive Aging

Prospective Memory and Cognitive Aging   Reference library

Simon J. Haines, Jill Talley Shelton, Julie D. Henry, Gill Terrett, Thomas Vorwerk, and Peter G. Rendell

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Psychology and Aging

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology
Length:
11,266 words
Illustration(s):
1

...opportunity in a similar manner as healthy older adults—but not implementing the intention as effectively. It is also possible traditional measures of strategic monitoring (i.e., ongoing task cost) could be tapping into other, unspecified processes, thus misrepresenting potential AD-related changes in monitoring behavior. Future research could explore alternative, more direct measures of strategic monitoring (e.g., eye-tracking methods; Shelton & Christopher, 2016 ). Parkinson’s Disease. Prospective memory deficits have also been found with individuals...

Aging and Cognitive Skill Learning

Aging and Cognitive Skill Learning   Reference library

Jack Kuhns and Dayna R. Touron

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Psychology and Aging

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology
Length:
9,540 words
Illustration(s):
3

... Touron, D. R. , & Hertzog, C. (2004a). Distinguishing age differences in knowledge, strategy use, and confidence during strategic skill acquisition . Psychology and Aging , 19 (3), 452–466. Touron, D. R. , & Hertzog, C. (2004b). Strategy shift affordance and strategy choice in young and older adults . Memory & Cognition , 32 (2), 298–310. Touron, D. R. , & Hertzog, C. (2009). Age differences in strategic behavior during a computation-based skill acquisition task . Psychology and Aging , 24 (3), 574–585. Touron, D. R. , Hoyer, W...

Terrorism

Terrorism   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
3,497 words
Illustration(s):
1

...a prominent feature of Islamic literature on jihād (religiously sanctioned warfare). In warfare, necessity might justify putting noncombatants at risk, but harm to innocents should neither be intentional nor excessive. Thus, phrases such as “Islamic terrorism” significantly misrepresent the religious roots of violence committed by Muslims. Nationalist Rationales for Terrorist Acts. Since World War II, the Middle East has become infamous as a cockpit for terrorism, although many of the perpetrators have not purported to act in the name of Islam. Arguably, the...

Foreign Policy and the Social Construction of State Identity

Foreign Policy and the Social Construction of State Identity   Reference library

Paul A. Kowert

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
11,302 words
Illustration(s):
1

...and global leadership. Other constructivists have examined the effects of identity on the state’s general diplomatic and strategic orientation. Johnston’s ( 1995 ) careful cultural history of Ming-era China shows, for example, that although China embraced a broadly realist strategic orientation, it did so for its own distinctive reasons, and in its own distinctive fashion. Germany and Japan embraced radically different strategic orientations after World War II (different both from their prewar orientations and from each other), and are also the object of...

Empirical Analyses of Deterrence

Empirical Analyses of Deterrence   Reference library

Stephen L. Quackenbush

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Empirical International Relations Theory

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
10,077 words
Illustration(s):
2

...predictions. A very different approach to bridging the formal-quantitative divide is taken by Signorino and Tarar ( 2006 ) , who utilize a strategic probit model to produce a unified theory and test of extended immediate deterrence. Strategic probit provides a method for integrating the theoretical and empirical models, while accounting for nonmonotonic influences of independent variables resulting from strategic interaction. This is a promising avenue for future studies of deterrence. Collectively, these efforts have gone a long way toward bridging the divide...

Christianity and Islam

Christianity and Islam   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
4,809 words
Illustration(s):
2

...or not, the colonial and imperial designs of their home countries. How far this generalization is true is a moot point. The question is whether study of a culture and religion by an external observer should be entirely rejected because of a certain inevitable degree of misrepresentation. Christian scholars, on the other hand, have regretted that few Muslims have attempted to create an Islamic “occidentalism” (Watt, p. 116). Of course, these Christian scholars intend that such work follow methods of modern—that is, Western—critical scholarship to balance the...

Nigeria

Nigeria   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Africa

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies, History, Regional and National History
Length:
4,883 words
Illustration(s):
3

...merchants acting in that de facto capacity) and local rulers, or conquest. Violence and trickery were essential to both approaches, since many customary rulers were assured of tragic consequences if they refused to sign. Evidence abounds, too, that the British officials often misrepresented the letter and import of the treaties, while exaggerating reports about impending threats from neighboring communities. Trading concerns played an extensive role in the formal colonial subjugation of Nigeria. Faced with strong French competition in the North in the 1870s, a...

Conceptual Art

Conceptual Art   Reference library

Jacob Stewart-Halevy, Michael Baldwin, Charles Harrison, Mel Ramsden, Mary Kelly, and Yair Guttmann

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
14,663 words
Illustration(s):
2

...in which a direct lineage is traced from Marcel Duchamp, through Jasper Johns, with Ad Reinhardt as an optional supplement. In such accounts, conceptual art needs to be made to be that which is derivable from Duchamp, Johns, or whomever. This historicizing process necessarily misrepresents both conceptual art’s actual historical and cultural contingency and the diffuseness of reasons according to which conceptual art was produced. We turn to the question of what is it that the category “conceptual art” serves usefully to distinguish? Our answer is that it serves...

Designing Research for Meaningful Results in Educational Leadership

Designing Research for Meaningful Results in Educational Leadership   Reference library

Karen Moran Jackson and Ric Brown

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Educational Administration

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2021
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
7,123 words
Illustration(s):
1

...In another example, the new hypothesis may be presented in tandem with the old hypothesis, as if the new was included a priori as well. While both are seen as problematic, the former is considered a more extreme form of HARKing as it hides a nonsignificant finding and misrepresents the original intent of the data collection and analysis. Whether a hypothesis was generated before or after data analysis influences its interpretation and goes against the premise of null hypothesis significance testing. This is because of the basic principle that data used...

The European Union’s International Promotion of LGBTI Rights in its Foreign Relations

The European Union’s International Promotion of LGBTI Rights in its Foreign Relations   Reference library

Markus Thiel

The Oxford Encyclopedia of LGBT Politics and Policy

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2021
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
8,287 words
Illustration(s):
1

...in scores from West to East, a divide that has remained constant since the establishment of this measurement tool in 2009 . Figure 1. ILGA’s Rainbow Europe Map 2019. Source : ILGA-Europe. Although it is advisable to be cautious about the way such indicators can be abused to misrepresent or stereotype states, they illustrate that while some of the Western European EU states have implemented extensive LGBTI rights provisions, including marriage and parental rights, the same cannot be said for many in Central and Eastern Europe. Some of the more vocal states,...

Incentives in Healthcare Payment Systems

Incentives in Healthcare Payment Systems   Reference library

Ching-to Albert Ma and Henry Y. Mak

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Health Economics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
11,423 words
Illustration(s):
18

...effort. In practice and in general, a provider has other strategic choices, and the insurer has to handle other issues. We now turn to these. Selection and Efficiency Trade-off In this section, we expand the provider’s choices to study selection. Unlike many firms that produce physical goods, a healthcare provider-supplies services. Service costs may depend on patient characteristics, such as medical history, comorbidity, age, and socioeconomic background. Selection refers to a provider’s strategic reaction against heterogeneous patient service costs....

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