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permanent establishment

Most tax treaties operate so that business profits are taxed in the country of the taxpayer’s residence, unless the taxpayer has a ‘permanent establishment’ in the other territory. In the ...

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An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
6,051 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...As John Landseer ( 1769–1852 ) put it in an 1834 catalogue of the National Gallery, the institution was designed to be ‘permanent and perennial, so that the public mind may there luxuriate and dwell, and reflect upon, or at its pleasure, revisit, what is there reposited’. At the same time as the project of the National Gallery was being pursued, London saw the emergence of a number of commercial, promotional art galleries—permanent collections of paintings originally commissioned for a specific publication and displayed in purpose-built galleries to...

Empire

Empire   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,298 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State for the Colonies under Henry Bathurst ( 1762–1834 ), the first Secretary for War and Colonies to take a close interest in colonial affairs. Further bureaucratic recognition of the importance of colonial affairs came with the establishment of a Permanent Under-Secretary in 1825 . Between 1836 and 1847 this office was held by Sir James Stephen ( 1789–1859 ), under whom the Colonial Office was put on a firm organizational footing and rendered an effective instrument in advancing representative government and in...

Design

Design   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
6,178 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...according to classical precedent. Boulton saw his factory as a ‘Temple of the Vulcanian Arts’. Besides manufacturing toys and Sheffield plate on a large scale, he started in the late 1760s to produce high-quality ormolu and silverware, the latter greatly stimulated by the establishment of an Assay Office in Birmingham in 1773 , largely through his efforts. Wedgwood named his new factory ‘Etruria’, on the generally but mistakenly held belief that the Etruscans made the finest antique vases. By selling ‘Vases, Urns and other ornaments after the Etruscan,...

Painting

Painting   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,778 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...but made even more galling by the work's extraordinary scale and long period of gestation—left the artist badly out of pocket. They also came to confirm Barry's increasing self-mythologization as a lone artist fighting heroically against a corrupted and unsympathetic artistic establishment. The kind of self-mythologization, which offered an embittered mirror-image of more dominant narratives of artistic celebrity, was to be shared by William Blake . But while the Society of Artists paintings stood as monolithic testaments to Barry's genius, Blake exalted...

Utopianism

Utopianism   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,929 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...the millenarian restoration of an ancient Jewish constitution and homeland. They also saw the ‘Jubilee Day’ expounded in Leviticus 25, when Moses dramatically freed the slaves and restored the alienated lands of the Hebrew tribes, as a loose revolutionary model for the re-establishment in Britain of a democratic, smallholder, agrarian republic. Many *Spenceans thus sought, in the manner of Blake, to bring about the advent of a new Jerusalem in England's ‘green and pleasant land’. Spencean utopias were scarcely disguised manifestos for revolutionary...

Great Awakening

Great Awakening   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945)
Length:
2,515 words

...Itinerancy and the Reshaping of the Colonial American Religious World . Durham, N.C., 1994. Shows how evangelical itinerants challenged defined parish boundaries and thus promoted religious competition. Isaac, Rhys . Religion and Authority: Problems of the Anglican Establishment in Virginia in the Era of the Great Awakening and the Parson's Cause . William and Mary Quarterly 30 (1973), 3–36. Discusses the spread of revival into Virginia and how evangelicals there challenged the ruling gentry's moral authority. Lambert, Frank . Inventing the Great...

Johnson, Samuel

Johnson, Samuel (1709–1784)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945)
Length:
1,596 words

...consistent system, and reference to Anglican apologetics fleshes out statements by Johnson that otherwise seem eccentric and allowed him to allude to rather than explain tenets that he expected to be recognized. Establishmentarianism Similarly, Johnson's rationale for the establishment of a state church was pragmatic, sanctioning two national churches with conflicting doctrines within Great Britain and working against bigotry between nations even while encouraging intolerance intranationally. Inasmuch as the law needed the support of morality, which itself...

Linguet, Simon-Nicolas-Henri

Linguet, Simon-Nicolas-Henri (1736–1794)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945)
Length:
1,958 words

...contract. Linguet then went into self-imposed exile in London. Early in 1777 , he published a libelous Lettre de M. Linguet à M. le comte de Vergennes, ministre des affaires étrangères en France , in which he accused the interlocking ministerial, judicial, and literary establishments of promoting the arbitrary removal of his properties in his two careers. He announced the publication of his new political journal, the Annales Politiques, Civiles, et Littéraires du Dix-Huitième Siècle , which he published between 1777 and 1792 , with several...

Academies

Academies   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945)
Length:
11,662 words
Illustration(s):
1

...projects for the establishment of institutions under such names as the Royal or British Academy or the College of Antiquaries influenced the great librarian Humphrey Wanley to found a new society at a meeting held in a tavern in London's Strand in December 1707 . During its first decade, the Society of Antiquaries remained a rather informal discussion group devoted to the history and antiquities of Great Britain before the reign of James I . In 1717 , regular subscriptions were instituted and a permanent meeting place, the Mitre, a tavern...

Diplomacy

Diplomacy   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945)
Length:
3,050 words

...the organization and accomplishments of French foreign affairs carried the impress of a great state into every corner of Europe and beyond. With the successes of Henry IV, Richelieu, and Mazarin to build on, a series of eminent foreign secretaries, and the largest establishment of envoys in Europe, French diplomacy assumed its identity and achieved greatness at the same time as French literature and culture raised the country's prestige to unprecedented heights. It was expressive of this prestige, which France continued to enjoy even amid later...

Hungary

Hungary   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945)
Length:
2,418 words

...of the country, and had established an exemplary policy of tolerance in religious matters, his defeat led to his exile and to a violent Catholic reaction that continued under the reign of Maria Theresa ( 1740–1780 ). The secularization of political and cultural life and the establishment by the government of religious tolerance occurred only under Joseph II ( 1780–1790 ). This evolution was quickly impeded, however, by the premature death of the emperor and the Catholic reaction of his successors. This particular social and cultural evolution of Hungary in...

La Mettrie, Julien Offray de

La Mettrie, Julien Offray de (1709–1751)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945)
Length:
2,308 words

... ( Anti-Seneca , 1750 and 1751 ), which acquired posthumously the title of Discours sur le bonheur ( Discourse on Happiness ). At the same time, there appeared his Système d'Epicure ( The System of Epicurus , 1750 ). Despite difficulties with the religious establishment and censorship in Prussia—and infamy all over Europe, owing not only to the irreligious content of his works but also to his satirical pamphlets—until La Mettrie's sudden death in 1751 , he kept the favor of the Prussian king. According to Voltaire, who was also present at...

Race

Race   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945)
Length:
2,491 words

...the development of the modern concept of race. It was, however, contact with non-European peoples, and their exploitation in a colonial context, that transformed racial theories derived from the natural sciences into a racist ideology focused especially on black Africans. The establishment of plantation economies in the Americas and the inability to use Native or European labor in them provided the key nexus for racial prejudice toward Africans. In effect, it made black slavery a material necessity, and a whole ideology was constructed to enforce its practice....

Universities

Universities   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945)
Length:
5,777 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Humboldtian university was an ideal environment in which Enlightenment values could flourish. More permanent and capacious than the salon, less utilitarian than the academy, the Humboldtian university was an institution the philosophes desperately needed to turn Kant's Age of Enlightenment into an “enlightened age.” It is appropriate that a professor who spent his entire life in Königsberg, the one giant of the Enlightenment who made the university his permanent adult home and from within its confines keenly recognized the Enlightenment's limited purchase on...

Hume, David

Hume, David (1711–1776)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945)
Length:
3,554 words

...and religion, and although he often impugned the motives of religion's traditional heroes, he was willing to excuse as frailty much that hidebound opinion wished to vilify. His first volumes ( 1754–1757 ), on the seventeenth-century Stuarts, therefore upset the political establishment, and his volumes on the Tudors ( 1759 ) the religious one. Those on the Roman and Norman periods ( 1761–1762 ) caused less provocation. From 1762 , his bookseller imposed the uniform title The History of England on the complete sequence; Hume never wrote the history of...

Poverty

Poverty   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945)
Length:
4,171 words

...by hospital administrators to wet-nurses. In the countryside, the mortality rate of these children approached 70 percent. Rousseau suggested that mothers breast-feed their own children as a means of avoiding this terrible mortality. The abbé de Saint Pierre proposed the establishment of a common fund to supplement the income of poor but numerous families, thereby encouraging mothers to breast-feed their children rather than sending them to wet-nurses. In England, foundlings also stirred concern, leading to the creation of the London Foundling Hospital in ...

Toleration

Toleration   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945)
Length:
4,902 words

...which declared, “no religious Test shall ever be required as a Qualification to any Office or public Trust under the United States.” In better-known language, the First Amendment to the Constitution established religious liberty: “Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof.” Richard Price , in the tract that was to incite Edmund Burke to write his Reflections on the Revolution in France , numbered as the “First” of the worthy principles of the Glorious Revolution “the right to liberty of...

Russia

Russia   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945)
Length:
4,755 words

...(its library was open twice a week to the general reader) and in Moscow University. The Academy of Arts, founded in 1757 , sent many students abroad to study. Travel to the West became more frequent; indeed, the Grand Tour became fashionable, thanks to the establishment by Peter I of permanent diplomatic posts in many countries. Just as stimulating were the visits to the Mediterranean of several naval squadrons sent to take part in the war against the Turks in 1768–1774 ; Russian officers brought home impressions from Renaissance and classical Italy,...

Sexuality

Sexuality   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945)
Length:
5,196 words

...century helped produce a wave of sexual panic and what is often called the “invention” of pornography. Religious, Scientific, and Popular Views of Sexuality Informed understanding of sexuality rested on the creeds of various religions and the findings of the scientific establishment—two authorities whose ideas were often intertwined. Judeo-Christian society generally valued heterosexuality because it reproduced the population. To this end, sexual relations were expected to occur within marriage, and non-consummation was grounds for separation or...

Enlightenment Studies

Enlightenment Studies   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945)
Length:
10,900 words

..., the brothers Edmond-Louis-Antoine and Jules-Alfred Huot de Goncourt told of rereading Diderot, whom they called a genius. “Tremendous objection against the justice of posterity,” they pronounced, for Diderot was nothing less than the Homer of “modern thought.” After the establishment of the Third Republic on a firm footing in 1877 and the passage of the Ferry educational laws in the 1880s, Voltaire in particular soared in pedagogical estimation. In 1884 , for example, Voltaire for the Schools brought his works to the primary-school system, and readers...

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