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Overview

Kantian ethics

An approach to moral questions deriving from the teachings and writing of the German philosopher Immanuel Kant (1724–1804). It is characterized by an emphasis on the rational endeavour of ...

Ethics

Ethics   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

...through the institution of rights. These different approaches have implications for the constituency of ethics—who is to count. For the utilitarian, if a being has welfare interests then it counts—as such it classically involves an extension to incorporate all sentient beings, human and nonhuman, present and future. Intrinsic-value rights theorists allow any being that is an end in itself to be included. They differ on whom that incorporates: Kantians extend rights to persons, animal-rights theorists to sentient beings, biocentric rights theory to all living...

Ethics

Ethics   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...through the institution of rights. These different approaches have implications for the constituency of ethics—who is to count. For the utilitarian, if a being has welfare interests then it counts—as such it classically involves an extension to incorpo-rate all sentient beings, human and nonhuman, present and future. Intrinsic-value rights theorists allow any being that is an end in itself to be included. They differ on whom that incorporates: Kantians extend rights to persons, animal-rights theorists to sentient beings, biocentric rights theory to all...

Intergenerational Equity

Intergenerational Equity   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

...be better to work toward strong sustainability, conserving the maximum feasible amounts of natural capital to maintain the options for the future. [ See also Belief Systems ; Conservation ; Environmetal Bioethics ; Environmental Law ; Ethics ; Gaia Hypothesis ; and Human Impacts .] Bibliography Attfield, R. The Ethics of Environmental Concern . Oxford: Blackwell, 1983. Brown, P. G. , and D. MacLean , eds. Energy and the Future . Totowa, N.J.: Rowman and Littlefield, 1983. Howarth, R. B. “ Sustainability under Uncertainty: A Deontological Approach. ”...

Policy Analysis

Policy Analysis   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...must always be limited by strict rules that take precedence over any benefit-cost calculation. For example, we should not allow other humans to be enslaved or murdered, no matter what a benefit-cost calculation might indicate. In considering policy to address global change, the Kantian approach suggests that we need to develop appropriate rules and apply BCA or cost-effectiveness analysis only within the constraints of the rules. Such rules might take the form of minimum standards for the protection of habitat or endangered species or maximum amounts of climate...

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