Update
The Oxford Biblical Studies Online and Oxford Islamic Studies Online have retired. Content you previously purchased on Oxford Biblical Studies Online or Oxford Islamic Studies Online has now moved to Oxford Reference, Oxford Handbooks Online, Oxford Scholarship Online, or What Everyone Needs to Know®. For information on how to continue to view articles visit the subscriber services page.
Dismiss

You are looking at 1-20 of 245 entries  for:

  • All: Neolithic Revolution x
  • Type: Subject Reference x
clear all

View:

Overview

Neolithic Revolution

Subject: Archaeology

[Ge] A term popularized by Gordon Childe in the 1940s to reflect the huge impact on life that was made by the development and spread of farming, which he saw as one of two ...

Neolithic Revolution

Neolithic Revolution ([Ge])   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2021
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
49 words

... Revolution [Ge] A term popularized by Gordon Childe in the 1940s to reflect the huge impact on life that was made by the development and spread of farming, which he saw as one of two critical moments in early history (the other he called the Urban Revolution...

Archaeology in the Ancient Near East

Archaeology in the Ancient Near East   Reference library

Oxford Bible Atlas (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
1,160 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
3

...which were stone‐lined hearths. There were also many burial pits. These dwellings are dated to the Natufian period which ended in about 8500 bce . The earliest remains from Jericho also belong to the Natufian culture. The Natufian period gave way to the Neolithic, more specifically the Pre‐Pottery Neolithic era, and at Jericho a settlement of round houses developed and was surrounded by a wall—the earliest The Near East: Principal Archaeological Sites ...

In the Beginning: The Earliest History

In the Beginning: The Earliest History   Reference library

Michael D. Coogan

Oxford History of the Biblical World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
10,305 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

...At its greatest extent Ain Ghazal covered over 12 hectares (30 acres), making it three times as large as its contemporary, Neolithic Jericho. The earliest settlement was relatively small, covering 2 hectares (5 acres), and half of the faunal remains recovered were of wild animals. Forty-five species are represented, reflecting the area's rich ecosystem, with gazelle the most frequently occurring. The Neolithic revolution had already begun at Ain Ghazal in the village's earliest years. Domesticated goats constituted half of the entire faunal...

Neolithic

Neolithic ([CP])   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2021
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
125 words

...been exaggerated in the past by the use of the term ‘Neolithic Revolution’. The appearance of Neolithic culture is dated variously from around 8000 bc in the Middle East to the 5th and 4th millennia bc in Atlantic...

Agricultural Origins and Their Consequences in Southwestern Asia

Agricultural Origins and Their Consequences in Southwestern Asia   Reference library

Alan Simmons

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Agriculture and the Environment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Engineering and Technology
Length:
10,709 words
Illustration(s):
8

...revolution was in fact a relatively slow process, with its roots in the preceding cultural period. In particular, one of the last phases of the Epipaleolithic period, the Natufian, is important since it set much of the framework for the Neolithic period. The Natufian is divided into early and late phases. It is followed by two broad periods, the Pre-Pottery Neolithic (or PPN), and the Pottery Neolithic (or the PN, also sometimes called the Late Neolithic). These broad periods are subdivided, with the PPN divided into the Pre-Pottery Neolithic A, B, and C...

Secondary Products Revolution

Secondary Products Revolution ([Th])   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2021
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
69 words

...Products Revolution [Th] An explanatory model published in 1981 by Andrew Sherratt to account for a series of changes in the later Neolithic material culture and subsistence base in central and northern Europe. Sherratt took the changes to indicate a fundamental shift away from flood‐plain agriculture towards a reliance on domestic livestock, especially their ‘secondary’ products such as traction power for wheeled vehicles and ploughs, wool, and...

Neolithic Ireland

Neolithic Ireland   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Irish History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
862 words

... Ireland . The Neolithic period (New Stone Age) is often viewed as a mainly economic phenomenon, and is sometimes referred to as the ‘Neolithic Revolution’. It began in Ireland around 4500 bc , slowly displacing the Mesolithic , and ended with the transition to the Bronze Age at around 2500 bc . It is the combined traits of changes in food production, settlement forms, burial practices, and material culture that essentially define the Neolithic. It is now recognized that the Neolithic was not homogeneous throughout Europe, or even Ireland, and that...

Prehistoric mythology of the Neolithic

Prehistoric mythology of the Neolithic   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to World Mythology

Reference type:
Subject Reference

...it was one of the many examples of what has come to be known as the “Neolithic revolution.” “Revolution” is perhaps not the best word to attach to a process that was gradual rather than immediate. Still, the changes that occurred during the period in question ( 8000–3000 b.c.e. ) are comparable to other periods of radical change, such as the Industrial Revolution of the nineteenth century or the current technological revolution. What had happened in the Middle East by the end of the Neolithic was a radical change from a life based on hunting and gathering to...

Jarmo, Iraq

Jarmo, Iraq ([Si])   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2021
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
146 words

...Iraq [Si] A Neolithic village site in the foothills of the Zagros Mountains near Kirkuk in northwest Iraq. Excavated by Robert Braidwood between 1948 and 1955 , the site is important because of its early evidence for food production. Sixteen main levels were defined within the 7 m thick stratigraphy, the first eleven of which lacked pottery. The earliest levels date to the 7th millennium bc and reveal the presence of mud‐brick houses. Cereals at the site include wheat and barley, and there was equipment present for processing the grain. Field pea,...

Agricultural Dispersals in Mediterranean and Temperate Europe

Agricultural Dispersals in Mediterranean and Temperate Europe   Reference library

Aurélie Salavert

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Agriculture and the Environment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Engineering and Technology
Length:
16,374 words
Illustration(s):
6

...is one of the main components of Neolithic economy, associated with animal husbandry, potterymaking, and sedentary habitats in western Europe ( Price & Bar-Yosef, 2011 ). Often described as a revolution ( Childe, 1925 ), the Neolithic period appears today like a transitional phenomenon in the Near East, as well as in the diffusion of its economy to Europe. Agriculture did not arrive suddenly. It took around 3,000 years for domesticates to spread from the Aegean to Great Britain and Ireland. But even if it was not a revolution, the invention of agriculture and...

Aristaios

Aristaios   Reference library

Andrew Dalby

The Oxford Companion to Cheese

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

...Diodoros of Sicily (first century b.c.e. ), asserts that it was also Aristaios who taught cheesemaking. This fits a pattern: Aristaios’s specialties, although ancient and important to humanity, are neither plant foods brought into cultivation in the Neolithic Revolution, nor the meat of animals that were Neolithic domesticates. Thus it is possible that Diodoros is reporting a real belief, one that happens to have passed unnoticed by other surviving authors on Greek mythology. See also ancient civilizations . Carter, Jane Burr . “The Masks of Ortheia...

῾Ain Ghazal

῾Ain Ghazal   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
1,867 words
Illustration(s):
1

...London, 1986. Köhler-Rollefson, Ilse. “The Aftermath of the Levantine Neolithic Revolution in the Light of Ecological and Ethnographic Evidence.” Paléorient 14.1 (1988): 87–93. Köhler-Rollefson, Ilse , and Gary O. Rollefson . “The Impact of Neolithic Subsistence Strategies on the Environment: The Case of ῾Ain Ghazal, Jordan.” In Man's Role in the Shaping of the Eastern Mediterranean Landscape , edited by Sytze Bottema et al., pp. 3–14. Rotterdam, 1990. Mellaart, James . The Neolithic of the Near East . New York, 1975. Perrot, Jean. “ Les deux premières...

Moscow

Moscow   Quick reference

World Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
213 words

... ( Moskva ) Capital of Russia and largest city in Europe, on the River Moskva. The site has been inhabited since Neolithic times, but Russian records do not mention it until 1147 . It had become a principality by the end of the 13th century, and in 1367 the first stone walls of the Kremlin were constructed. By the end of the 14th century, Moscow emerged as the focus of Russian opposition to the Mongols. Polish troops occupied the city in 1610 , but were driven out two years later. Moscow was the capital of the Grand Duchy of Russia from 1547 to...

Sheep and Goats

Sheep and Goats   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
1,480 words

...from Bronze Age Tal-e Malyan (ancient Anshan), documenting the controlled distribution of meat resources to urban dwellers no longer producing food for their own consumption. Zeder, Melinda A. “ After the Revolution: Post-Neolithic Subsistence in Northern Mesopotamia. ” American Anthropologist 96 (1994): 97–126. Presents new data on post-Neolithic subsistence in the middle Khabur drainage in northeastern Syria, demonstrating the persistence of hunting as a major element in the subsistence economy of marginal environmental zones from the sixth millennium...

Early History of Animal Domestication in Southwest Asia

Early History of Animal Domestication in Southwest Asia   Reference library

Benjamin S. Arbuckle

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Agriculture and the Environment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Engineering and Technology
Length:
16,035 words
Illustration(s):
2

...Science , 72 , 1–9. Atici, A. L. (2011). Before the revolution: Epipaleolithic subsistence in the western Taurus Mountains, Turkey . BAR International Monograph Series 2251. Oxford, U.K.: Archaeopress. Atici, A. L. , Birch, S. E. P. , & Erdoğu, B. (2017). Spread of domestic animals across Neolithic western Anatolia: New zooarchaeological evidence from Uğurlu Höyük, the island of Gökçeada, Turkey. PLOS One , 12 , e0186519. Baird, D. (2012). The late Epipaleolithic, Neolithic and Chalcolithic of the Anatolian Plateau, 13,000–4000 BC. In D....

Cyprus

Cyprus   Reference library

Joseph A. Greene and Thomas W. Davis

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
1,507 words

...and Protohistoric Cyprus , 2008. Metcalf, D. M. Byzantine Cyprus, pp. 491–1191, 2009. Peltenburg, E. J. , ed. Early Society in Cyprus , 1989. Reyes, A. T. Archaic Cyprus: A Study of the Textual and Archaeological Evidence , 1994. Simmons, A. H. The Neolithic Revolution in the Near East , 2007. Steel, L. Cyprus Before History , 2004. Wright, G. R. H. Ancient Building in Cyprus , 1992. Joseph A. Greene ; revised by Thomas W....

Climate Change and Societal Development

Climate Change and Societal Development   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

...Chile Mid Holocene Grosjean et al., 1997 Cultural change in coastal Peru Mid Holocene Wells and Noller, 1999 Domestication Early Holocene/Late Pleistocene Sherratt, 1997 Southwards expansion of Bantu in Africa After c 4200 bp Burroughs, 2005 Neolithic settlement in Harz Mountains 7600–4550 bp Voigt, 2006 Mid-Neolithic decline in NE Morocco 6500–6000 bp Zielhofer and Linstädter, 2006 Collapse of Tiwanaku State c 1000 bp Ortloff and Kolata, 1993 Emergence of Egyptian Dynastic state and of Pharaonic civilization c 6000 bp Brooks, 2006 & Kuper & Kröpelin,...

earthenware pottery

earthenware pottery   Reference library

Peter Tomkins

The Oxford Companion to Cheese

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Society and culture, Cookery, Food, and Drink
Length:
1,227 words
Illustration(s):
1

...of the Neolithic (ca. 9–11,000 b.c.e. ). Unfortunately, however, the fact that these earliest farming groups only used organic containers means that we cannot use pottery to test this hypothesis. It is nevertheless suggestive that as soon as pottery first appears in the farming societies of the Near East and southeastern Europe (ca. 7300–6000 b.c.e. ) it provides direct evidence, in the form of milk residues, for dairying practices, which in all probability means cheesemaking. In addition the presence of milk lipids in early Neolithic pottery from...

Secondary Products Revolution

Secondary Products Revolution   Reference library

Andrew Sherratt

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
2,179 words

...; Horse, Domestication of the ; Land Transportation: Use of Animals for Transportation ; Pastoralism ; Textiles ; Uruk ; Wheel, The . ] Barber, Elizabeth J. W. Prehistoric Textiles: The Development of Cloth in the Neolithic and Bronze Ages , 1991. Chapman, J. “The ‘Secondary Products Revolution’ and the Limitations of the Neolithic.” Bulletin of the Institute of Archaeology 19 (1982): 107–122. Childe, V. Gordon . Man Makes Himself, 1936. Dahl, G. , and A. Hjort . Having Herds: Pastoral Herd Growth and Household Economy , 1976. Payne,...

Sardinia

Sardinia   Reference library

Stephen L. Dyson

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
1,800 words

...again there is no clear evidence of new pottery-producing groups arriving from the mainland. More likely is that the various elements of the Neolithic revolution reached Sardinia via the existing trade networks and were integrated to form a distinctly Sardinian Neolithic culture. By the end of the sixth millennium BC, the island Neolithic culture was well established. Several phases of the Sardinian Neolithic have been identified, mainly through ceramic changes. The most interesting developments came with the late Ozieri phase. It was characterized by...

View: