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Neolithic Revolution

Subject: Archaeology

[Ge] A term popularized by Gordon Childe in the 1940s to reflect the huge impact on life that was made by the development and spread of farming, which he saw as one of two ...

Agricultural Origins and Their Consequences in Southwestern Asia

Agricultural Origins and Their Consequences in Southwestern Asia   Reference library

Alan Simmons

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Agriculture and the Environment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Engineering and Technology
Length:
10,709 words
Illustration(s):
8

...revolution was in fact a relatively slow process, with its roots in the preceding cultural period. In particular, one of the last phases of the Epipaleolithic period, the Natufian, is important since it set much of the framework for the Neolithic period. The Natufian is divided into early and late phases. It is followed by two broad periods, the Pre-Pottery Neolithic (or PPN), and the Pottery Neolithic (or the PN, also sometimes called the Late Neolithic). These broad periods are subdivided, with the PPN divided into the Pre-Pottery Neolithic A, B, and C...

Agricultural Dispersals in Mediterranean and Temperate Europe

Agricultural Dispersals in Mediterranean and Temperate Europe   Reference library

Aurélie Salavert

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Agriculture and the Environment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Engineering and Technology
Length:
16,374 words
Illustration(s):
6

...is one of the main components of Neolithic economy, associated with animal husbandry, potterymaking, and sedentary habitats in western Europe ( Price & Bar-Yosef, 2011 ). Often described as a revolution ( Childe, 1925 ), the Neolithic period appears today like a transitional phenomenon in the Near East, as well as in the diffusion of its economy to Europe. Agriculture did not arrive suddenly. It took around 3,000 years for domesticates to spread from the Aegean to Great Britain and Ireland. But even if it was not a revolution, the invention of agriculture and...

Early History of Animal Domestication in Southwest Asia

Early History of Animal Domestication in Southwest Asia   Reference library

Benjamin S. Arbuckle

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Agriculture and the Environment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Engineering and Technology
Length:
16,035 words
Illustration(s):
2

...Science , 72 , 1–9. Atici, A. L. (2011). Before the revolution: Epipaleolithic subsistence in the western Taurus Mountains, Turkey . BAR International Monograph Series 2251. Oxford, U.K.: Archaeopress. Atici, A. L. , Birch, S. E. P. , & Erdoğu, B. (2017). Spread of domestic animals across Neolithic western Anatolia: New zooarchaeological evidence from Uğurlu Höyük, the island of Gökçeada, Turkey. PLOS One , 12 , e0186519. Baird, D. (2012). The late Epipaleolithic, Neolithic and Chalcolithic of the Anatolian Plateau, 13,000–4000 BC. In D....

Climate Change and Societal Development

Climate Change and Societal Development   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

...Chile Mid Holocene Grosjean et al., 1997 Cultural change in coastal Peru Mid Holocene Wells and Noller, 1999 Domestication Early Holocene/Late Pleistocene Sherratt, 1997 Southwards expansion of Bantu in Africa After c 4200 bp Burroughs, 2005 Neolithic settlement in Harz Mountains 7600–4550 bp Voigt, 2006 Mid-Neolithic decline in NE Morocco 6500–6000 bp Zielhofer and Linstädter, 2006 Collapse of Tiwanaku State c 1000 bp Ortloff and Kolata, 1993 Emergence of Egyptian Dynastic state and of Pharaonic civilization c 6000 bp Brooks, 2006 & Kuper & Kröpelin,...

The Agriculture of Early India

The Agriculture of Early India   Reference library

Charlene Murphy and Dorian Q. Fuller

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Agriculture and the Environment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Engineering and Technology
Length:
13,962 words
Illustration(s):
8

...origins on the Indian subcontinent. (EH) Eastern Early Harappan, (GN) Ganges Neolithic, (ON) Orissa Neolithic, (SC) Sorath Chalcolithic and Banas Culture, (NDC) North Deccan Chalcolithic, (SN) Southern Neolithic and (KGM) Kili Ghul Mohammad. Sites. Regions of plausible crop domestication: (1) South Deccan, (2) Middle Ganges and/or Vindhyas, (3) Upper Mahanadi, (4) Foothills of the Indo-Gangetic Divide, (5) Saurashtra or Southern Aravallis. Zones of early farming Neolithic/Chalcolithic culture areas: 1. Lahuradewa 2. Mehrgarh 3. Kunal 4. Tigrana 5. Senuwar...

Barley in Archaeology and Early History

Barley in Archaeology and Early History   Reference library

Simone Riehl

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Agriculture and the Environment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Engineering and Technology
Length:
10,328 words
Illustration(s):
4

... Watkins, T. (2008). Supra-regional networks in the Neolithic of Southwest Asia . Journal of World Prehistory, 21 (2), 139–171. Watkins, T. (2010). New light on Neolithic revolution in south-west Asia. Antiquity, 84 , 621–634. Watkins, T. (2013). Neolithisation needs evolution, as evolution needs neolithisation. Neolithics , 2 , 5–10. Weide, A. , Riehl, S. , Zeidi, M. , & Conard, N. J. (2015). Using new morphological criteria to identify domesticated emmer wheat at the aceramic Neolithic site of Chogha Golan (Iran) . Journal of...

Human-Environmental Interrelationships and the Origins of Agriculture in Egypt and Sudan

Human-Environmental Interrelationships and the Origins of Agriculture in Egypt and Sudan   Reference library

Simon Holdaway and Rebecca Phillipps

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Agriculture and the Environment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020

...bones identified in addition to 600 cattle bones noted earlier. Sheep are more frequent than goats among the identifiable remains. In the Kerma region, evidence for caprines is more limited in the early Neolithic. However, they are present after 7000 bp , although faunal remains indicate a prevalence of cattle. This changes in the Late Neolithic after 6000 bp to a dominance of caprines over cattle ( Chaix & Honegger, 2014 ). In the Lower Nile and Delta sites, caprines also outnumber cattle, but there is considerable variability in the relative...

Consequences of Agriculture in Mesopotamia, Anatolia, and the Levant

Consequences of Agriculture in Mesopotamia, Anatolia, and the Levant   Reference library

John M. Marston

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Agriculture and the Environment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Engineering and Technology
Length:
17,208 words
Illustration(s):
1

...centuries bc ). Irrigation and Drainage Systems, 14 (4), 301–324. Bandy, M. S. (2005). New World settlement evidence for a two-stage Neolithic Demographic Transition. Current Anthropology, 46 (S5), S109–S115. Barker, G. W. (2002). A tale of two deserts: Contrasting desertification histories on Rome’s desert frontiers . World Archaeology, 33 (3), 488–507. Barker, G. W. (2009). The agricultural revolution in prehistory: Why did foragers become farmers? Oxford: Oxford University Press. Barker, G. W. , Adams, R. , Creighton, O. H. , Gilbertson...

Origin and Development of Agriculture in New Guinea, Island Melanesia, and Polynesia

Origin and Development of Agriculture in New Guinea, Island Melanesia, and Polynesia   Reference library

Tim Denham

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Agriculture and the Environment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Engineering and Technology
Length:
13,865 words
Illustration(s):
5

...to infer deep-time processes of dispersal, as well as presumably domestication, for animals and crop plants in the Pacific region. Decoupling Early Agriculture and the Neolithic in the Pacific. Ideas concerning early agriculture and agricultural dispersal in Island Southeast Asia, New Guinea, and the western Pacific have become embroiled in debates concerning the Neolithic, or neolithics ( Denham, 2004 ; Florin & Carah, in press ; Spriggs, 1997 , 2011 ), as well as hypotheses regarding the contribution of Austronesian-speaking voyager-farmers from...

Chemical Industry

Chemical Industry   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

...Sulfuric acid plants were built in England and France to supply dye-making and metal-processing firms. Demand for alkali for glass and soap produced a thriving industry in France at the time of the Revolution. The French early dominance of this embryonic industry waned after the Revolution as the free-enterprise model that drove the Industrial Revolution in England spawned a growing basic chemicals industry. The mainstay was the manufacture of sodium carbonate (sal soda) via the heavily polluting Leblanc process, which produced copious emissions of...

Geography and Chronology of the Transition to Agriculture

Geography and Chronology of the Transition to Agriculture   Reference library

Peter Bogucki

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Agriculture and the Environment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Engineering and Technology
Length:
18,620 words
Illustration(s):
2

...in oases, where they developed mutualistic relationships that would later be characterized as domestication. Despite a lack of empirical support, Childe’s theory was widely accepted. In his 1936 book Man Makes Himself , Childe coined the term “Neolithic Revolution” to stress the connection between the Neolithic period as defined on the basis of artifact types and use of domestic plants and animals. Childe’s emphasis on the importance of the origins of agriculture gave impetus to archaeological excavations, as well as recognition that this research required...

Human Populations

Human Populations   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
7,227 words
Illustration(s):
5

...especially in hot and wet climates where bacterial decay is rapid and evidence from wood and other organic materials does not survive. Estimates of population numbers rely heavily on documentary sources. Where early centralized civilizations, mostly associated with the Neolithic revolutions of some six to eight thousand years ago, developed a written culture, as in ancient Egypt, there were early estimates of human populations. Rather later, in the Roman Empire for example, population counts in history were primarily associated with taxation, as in the case...

Human Populations

Human Populations   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
6,837 words
Illustration(s):
3

...especially in hot and wet climates where bacterial decay is rapid and evidence from wood and other organic materials does not survive. Estimates of population numbers rely heavily on documentary sources. Where early centralized civilizations, mostly associated with the Neolithic revolutions of some 6–8 thousand years ago, developed a literate culture, as in ancient Egypt, there were early estimates of human populations. Rather later, in the Roman Empire for example, population counts in history were associated primarily with taxation, as in the case of the...

Chemical Industry

Chemical Industry   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...Sulfuric acid plants were built in England and France to supply dye-making firms and metal processing. Demand for alkali for glass and soap produced a thriving industry in France at the time of the Revolution. The French early dominance of this embryonic industry waned after the Revolution as the free enterprise model that drove the Industrial Revolution in England spawned a healthy and growing basic chemicals industry. The mainstay was the manufacture of sodium carbonate (sal soda) via the heavily polluting Leblanc process, which produced copious...

Ancient and Traditional Agriculture in South America: Tropical Lowlands

Ancient and Traditional Agriculture in South America: Tropical Lowlands   Reference library

Glenn H. Shepard, Charles R. Clement, Helena Pinto Lima, Gilton Mendes dos Santos, Claide de Paula Moraes, and Eduardo Góes Neves

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Agriculture and the Environment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Engineering and Technology
Length:
15,783 words
Illustration(s):
9

...with crop and animal domestication in the early Holocene. During the so-called Neolithic revolution, farmers invested increasingly (and irreversibly) in agricultural livelihoods, and as the saying goes, the rest is history. In the New World, and the South American lowlands in particular, the relationship between domestication, food production, and cultural development does not follow the Old World pattern. As Neves ( 2016 ) summed up the situation, “There is no Neolithic south of the Equator.” Only in the late 20th century did a growing cadre of...

Hunter-Gatherer Economies in the Old World and New World

Hunter-Gatherer Economies in the Old World and New World   Reference library

Christopher Morgan, Shannon Tushingham, Raven Garvey, Loukas Barton, and Robert L. Bettinger

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Agriculture and the Environment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Engineering and Technology
Length:
15,951 words
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3

...( Secale spp.). Though more sedentary than their Kebaran predecessors, considerable mobility characterized the Late Natufian during the Younger Dryas (ca. 13–11.5 kya), immediately prior to the earliest evidence for exploitation of domesticated cereals during the Pre-Pottery Neolithic A (PPNA), ca. 11 kya ( Makarewicz, 2012 ). In Mesoamerica, the cereal domesticate was maize ( Zea mays ), a tropical grass derived from teosinte ( Balsas teosinte ) some 9,000 years ago or more. Here, however, maize domestication was affiliated with a long period of intensive...

Soils, Science, Society, and the Environment

Soils, Science, Society, and the Environment   Reference library

Colin R. Robins

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Agriculture and the Environment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Engineering and Technology
Length:
15,847 words
Illustration(s):
1

...to propose a chronology for the development of soil knowledge and science from the Neolithic to the present (see Table 1 ). More recently, expert summaries of the nearly 11 millennia of soils knowledge and science history have been presented by Brevik and Hartemink ( 2010 ) and others (see Brevik, 2013 ). Table 1. A generalized chronology of soil science developments Time Range Main Developments Selected Writers or Thinkers Ancient World and Middle Ages 1 Neolithic - Early Bronze Age (~10 ka to 5 ka) Accumulation of knowledge about soil properties,...

Human Dimensions of Global Change

Human Dimensions of Global Change   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

...Settlement Transformation More immediately consequential for the welfare of humans and the ecological health of the planet has been the enormous growth in population during the modern period. After a major spurt following the adoption of agriculture and animal husbandry in the Neolithic, there was probably a gradual buildup of total global population through the Middle Ages, despite occasional setbacks. [ See Agriculture and Agricultural Land .] The modern era has brought at least a twelve-fold increase in the world's population, from an estimated half-billion...

Global Change

Global Change   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...consequential for the welfare of Homo sapiens and the ecological health of the planet has been the enormous growth in human numbers during the modern period. It seems quite likely that, after a major spurt following the adoption of agriculture and animal husbandry in the Neolithic, there was a relatively slow, gradual buildup of total global population thereafter up through the Middle Ages, despite the occasional temporary setback. [See Agriculture and Agricultural Land .] But a new demographic era arrived once the modernization process was well under...

Dairy, Science, Society, and the Environment

Dairy, Science, Society, and the Environment   Reference library

Christopher Lu

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Agriculture and the Environment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Engineering and Technology
Length:
18,872 words
Illustration(s):
4

...intensive rotational grazing or conventional farmers. Historical Development. Beginning 8,000 to 10,000 years ago, Neolithic farmers in the Near East started keeping small herds of cattle, goats, and sheep to supply both their milk and meat, and also used animal hair bone, skin, and sinew to make clothing and in building. Undoubtedly, dairy farming at the time was organic. Mechanical ( 1880–1930 ) and chemical ( 1920–1950 ) revolutions in agriculture greatly influenced modern-day livestock farming that was predominately nonorganic. Biological advances in...

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