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  • All: Neolithic Revolution x
  • Early history (500 CE to 1500) x
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Neolithic Revolution

Subject: Archaeology

[Ge] A term popularized by Gordon Childe in the 1940s to reflect the huge impact on life that was made by the development and spread of farming, which he saw as one of two ...

Geneva

Geneva   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Medieval Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...of Lake Geneva (Lac Léman) on both banks of the River Rhône, from 1536 it became a centre of the Reformation under the influence of Jean Calvin ( 1509–64 ). The oldest traces of human settlement, which consist of buildings on piles in the present harbour area, date from the Neolithic era ( c. 2500 bc ). The first fortified settlement on the hill overlooking the south bank of the Rhône was built c. 450 bc : it belonged to the Celtic Allobroges and in 121 bc was incorporated into the province of Gallia Narbonensis by the Romans. The forum was on the...

Brussels

Brussels   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Medieval Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...constructed along the line of the medieval fortifications. Although it lies in a principally Flemish-speaking part of the country, Brussels is a bilingual city, with French predominating. Excavations in the town centre have shown that the site may have been occupied since the Neolithic period ( c . 2500 bc ), and there is evidence for Roman villas and a Merovingian cemetery. Historians, however, are divided as to the early development of the settlement, which became securely established about ad 979 under Charles of France ( reg 978–91), who was made Duke...

Laon

Laon   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Medieval Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Art & Architecture, History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
4,267 words
Illustration(s):
3

... Laon French city in Aisne département. The original, upper town is situated on a plateau c. 200 m high, from which the Gothic cathedral dominates the plains stretching north to Belgium. The site, a natural fortress, has been inhabited since the Neolithic period. It was fortified by the Romans in the 3rd century ad . The diocese was founded in ad 497 by Remigius, Bishop of Reims ( c. 438– c. 533). Laon became a favoured residence of the Carolingian and Capetian kings, traces of whose palace, with an impressive donjon, survived until 1830 . Medieval...

Military architecture and fortification

Military architecture and fortification   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Medieval Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...to other art forms, this section seeks to draw together themes inherent in subsequent sections and to consider the meaning beyond the physical possessed by fortification. Enclosures expressed the taboos of early societies by marking out the sacred precinct: banks flanking Neolithic long barrows, the ring-ditches of causewayed camps, such places of ceremonious assembly as the temple temenos of ancient Greece and the sculpture-clad gateways of Egyptian and Mesopotamian sanctuaries, all defended by force of spiritual exclusiveness. Even the domestic verge was...

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